Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) In Asia-Pacific - Infrastructure, Investment and Regulation Analysis

Publisher Name :
Date: 31-Mar-2014
No. of pages: 205

GlobalData's "Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) In Asia-Pacific Infrastructure, Investment and Regulation Analysis" gives detailed information on the transmission and distribution market in the Asia Pacific region, focusing on countries China, India, Indonesia, Australia, Japan and New Zealand. The report covers all the six countries for the transmission and distribution market. T&D infrastructure, investment analysis, drivers, restraints, and regulation analysis is given for each of the six countries.

Scope


  • The report provides detailed analysis of the transmission and distribution market in different countries. It's scope includes the study of different countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.

  • Information related to power supply structure in the countries.

  • Analysis of T&D market related to network lines (in Ckm), capacity (in MVA) and substations (units) for the countries.

  • Information related to smart grid and power imports and exports in the countries.

  • T&D investment planned during the forecast period in the countries.

  • Key regulations influencing the T&D market in these countries.


Reasons to buy

  • The report will enhance your decision making capability in a more rapid and time sensitive manner. It will allow you to -

  • Facilitate decision-making based on historic and forecast data related to T&D capacity, line length and substations in the China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.

  • Refine business strategies with a complete understanding of the trends and developments shaping the T&D markets in the above mentioned key countries.

  • Evaluate opportunities in promising T&D markets to quantify potential returns on investment.

Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) In Asia-Pacific - Infrastructure, Investment and Regulation Analysis

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents 3
1.1 List of Tables 7
1.2 List of Figures 11

2 Transmission and Distribution Market, Asia-Pacific 14
2.1 Global Transmission and Distribution Market 14
2.2 Transmission and Distribution Market, Asia-Pacific 14

3 China Transmission and Distribution Market, China 16
3.1 China Overview 16
3.1.1 China, Power Supply Structure, China 17
3.1.2 Transmission Infrastructure, China 18
3.1.3 China, Distribution Infrastructure, China 26
3.1.4 China, Smart Grid, China 32
3.1.5 China, T&D Imports and Exports, China 34
3.1.6 China, T&D Market, Investment, China 35
3.1.7 China, T&D Market, Drivers, China 37
3.1.8 China, T&D Market, Restraints, China 39
3.1.9 China, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives, China 40

4 Transmission and Distribution Market, India 45
4.1 India, Overview 45
4.1.1 India, Power Supply Structure, India 46
4.1.2 India, Transmission Infrastructure, India 47
4.1.3 India, Distribution Infrastructure, India 59
4.1.4 India, Smart Grid, India 68
4.1.5 India, Transmission and Distribution Market, Investments, India 70
4.1.6 Imports and Exports, India 72
4.1.7 India, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 73
4.1.8 India, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints, India 77
4.1.9 India, T&D Market, Regulations and Initiatives, India 77

5 Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Market 87
5.1 Indonesia, Overview 87
5.1.1 Indonesia, Power Supply Structure 87
5.1.2 Indonesia, Transmission Infrastructure 88
5.1.3 Indonesia, Distribution Infrastructure 98
5.1.4 Indonesia, Smart Grid 104
5.1.5 Indonesia, T&D Market, Imports and Exports 105
5.1.6 Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Investments 106
5.1.7 Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 109
5.1.8 Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 110
5.1.9 Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 111

6 Japan, Transmission and Distribution Market 115
6.1 Japan, Overview 115
6.1.1 Japan, Power Supply Structure 116
6.1.2 Japan, Transmission Infrastructure 116
6.1.3 Japan, Distribution Infrastructure 124
6.1.4 Japan, Smart Grid 130
6.1.5 Japan, T&D Market, Imports and Exports 131
6.1.6 Japan, Transmission and Distribution Investments 132
6.1.7 Japan, T&D Market, Drivers 134
6.1.8 Japan, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 135
6.2 Japan, Power Market, Regulatory Structure Overview 135
6.3 Japan, Power Market, Sector Reforms 136
6.4 Japan, Power Market, New Policies and Strategy 137
6.4.1 Cross-regional co-ordination of transmission operators 138
6.4.2 Full retail competition 138
6.4.3 Unbundling of the T&D sector 138

7 Australia, Transmission and Distribution Market 139
7.1 Australia, Overview 139
7.1.1 Australia, Power Supply Structure 140
7.1.2 Australia, Transmission Infrastructure 140
7.1.3 Australia, Distribution Infrastructure 148
7.1.4 Australia, Smart Grid 152
7.1.5 Australia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Imports and Exports 153
7.1.6 Australia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 154
7.1.7 Australia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 155
7.1.8 Australia Transmission and Distribution Investments 156

8 Australia, Power Market, Regulatory Structure 162
8.1 Australia, Power Market, Regulatory Structure Overview 162
8.2 Power Market Restructuring in Australia 162
8.3 Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme 163
8.4 Carbon Capture and Storage Projects 163
8.5 Clean Energy Policies 164

9 New Zealand Transmission and Distribution Market 165
9.1 New Zealand, Overview 165
9.1.1 New Zealand, Power Supply Structure 166
9.1.2 New Zealand, Transmission Infrastructure 167
9.1.3 New Zealand, Distribution Infrastructure 177
9.1.4 New Zealand, Smart Grid 184
9.1.5 New Zealand, Transmission and Distribution Market, Imports and Exports 185
9.1.6 New Zealand, Transmission Investment 186
9.1.7 New Zealand, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 186
9.1.8 New Zealand, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 187
9.2 New Zealand, Regulatory Structure, Overview 188
9.3 New Zealand, Regulatory Scenario, Major Policies 189
9.3.1 Electricity Industry Act 189
9.3.2 Renewable Energy Policies 190
9.3.3 Energy Efficiency Measures 190

10 Appendix 192
10.1 Market Definitions 192
10.1.1 Power 192
10.1.2 Installed Capacity 192
10.1.3 Electricity Generation 192
10.1.4 Thermal Power Plant 192
10.1.5 Nuclear Power 192
10.1.6 Renewable Energy Resources 192
10.2 Abbreviations 193
10.3 Bibliography 196
10.4 Methodology 202
10.4.1 Coverage 202
10.4.2 Secondary Research 202
10.4.3 Primary Research 203
10.5 Disclaimer 204

List of Tables

Table 1: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 20
Table 2: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 23
Table 3: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Number of Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 26
Table 4: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid, Power Sales (TWh), 2007-2012 28
Table 5: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 30
Table 6: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Number of Distribution Substations at 35kV level, 2000-2020 32
Table 7: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Generation and Grid Investment by State Grid Corporation of China ($bn), 2006-2013 36
Table 8: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Generation and Grid Investment by China Southern Power Grid, 2008-2012 37
Table 9: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Key Features of 12th FYP 44
Table 10: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Growth of Transmission Lines below 66kV (Ckm) 1947-2013 49
Table 11: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Growth of Transmission Lines of 66kV and Above (Ckm), 1947-2013 51
Table 12: Transmission and DistributionMarket, India, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 53
Table 13: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 55
Table 14: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Transmission Capacity(MVA), 2000-2020 57
Table 15: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Number of Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 59
Table 16: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Number of Villages Provided with Electricity, 1950-2013 62
Table 17: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Cumulative Length of Distribution Lines(Ckm) ,2000-2020 64
Table 18: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 67
Table 19: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Average Cost of Supply and Average Revenue Realized (INR/kWh), 2009-2012 68
Table 20: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Inter-regional Transmission Capacity (MW), End of 12th FYP 70
Table 21: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Investments in Power Distribution under various Schemes($bn), End of 12th FYP 72
Table 22: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Transmission and Distribution Losses (%), 2001-2013 76
Table 23: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Mandated Monthly Availability of Transmission Elements (%), 2014 78
Table 24: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Mandated Monthly Availability of Transmission Elements (Days), 2014 79
Table 25: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Annual Registration by Grid Voltage, 2012 80
Table 26: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Grid Voltage (kV), 2014 81
Table 27: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Application Fees ($), 2014 82
Table 28: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Timeframe for Processing Applications (Days), 2014 82
Table 29: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Rates for Long-, Medium- and Short-term Open Access, 2014 83
Table 30: Transmission Towers Market, Indonesia, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 90
Table 31: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Transmission Capacity(MVA), 2000-2020 94
Table 32: Indonesia, Planned Transmission Infrastructure, 2012-2021 97
Table 33: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Distribution Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 99
Table 34: Indonesia, SAIDI and SAIFI Values, 2007-2012 101
Table 35: Indonesia, Electrification Ratio, 2007-2011 102
Table 36: Indonesia, Electrification Rate Targets (%), 2012-2031 103
Table 37: Indonesia, Planned Distribution Infrastructure, 2012-2021 104
Table 38: Indonesia, Power Infrastructure Investment Break-down (%), 2012-2021 107
Table 39: Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Investment Split by Years ($bn), 2012-2021 108
Table 40: PowerMarket, Japan, Cumulative Transmission Line Length(Ckm), 2000-2020 120
Table 41: Japan, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 122
Table 42: Japan, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 124
Table 43: Japan, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 126
Table 44: Japan, Transmission and Distribution Losses (%), 2000-2012 128
Table 45: Japan, Distribution Substations, 2000-2020 130
Table 46: Japan, Smart City Projects, 2014 131
Table 47: Japan, Electricity Investments ($bn), 2004-2011 133
Table 48: Japan, Breakdown of Electricity Investment into Generation and Transmission and Distribution (%), 2011 133
Table 49: Power Market, Australia, Cumulative Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 143
Table 50: Australia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 146
Table 51: Australia, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 148
Table 52: Australia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 151
Table 53: Australia, SAIDI and SAIFI Values, 2003-2012 152
Table 54: Power Market, Australia, Transmission Investment ($m), Current Regulatory Period 157
Table 55: Power Market, Australia, Distribution Investment ($m), Current Regulatory Period 158
Table 56: Power Market, Australia, Transmission Networks, Operating Expenditure ($m), Current Regulatory Period 159
Table 57: Power Market, Australia, Distribution Networks, Operating Expenditure ($m), Current Regulatory Period 161
Table 58: Power Market, New Zealand, Cumulative Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 170
Table 59: Power Market, New Zealand, Completed Transmission Projects, 2012-2013 171
Table 60: Power Market, New Zealand, Transmission Projects to be Commissioned, 2012-2013 171
Table 61: Power Market, New Zealand, Operational Performance versus Target, 2013 173
Table 62: Power Market, New Zealand, Operational Performance Target for 2014 173
Table 63: New Zealand, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 175
Table 64: New Zealand, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 177
Table 65: New Zealand, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 182
Table 66: New Zealand, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 183
Table 67: New Zealand, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 184
Table 68: New Zealand, Transmission Investments, 2012 186
Table 69: Power Market, New Zealand, NZEECS Programs 191
Table 70: Abbreviations 193

List of Figures

Figure 1: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 19
Figure 2: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 22
Figure 3: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Number of Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 25
Figure 4: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 29
Figure 5: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Number of Distribution Substations at 35kV level, 2000-2020 31
Figure 6: Transmission and Distribution Market, China, Generation and Grid Investment by State Grid Corporation of China ($bn), 2006-2013 35
Figure 7: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Growth of Transmission Lines below 66kV (Ckm), 1947-2013 48
Figure 8: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Growth of Transmission Lines of 66kV and Above (Ckm), 1947-2013 50
Figure 9: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 52
Figure 10: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Power Grid, 2013 54
Figure 11: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 56
Figure 12: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Number of Transmission Substations by Voltage Type, 2000-2020 58
Figure 13: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Number of Villages Provided with Electricity, 1950-2013 61
Figure 14: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Cumulative Length of Distribution Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 63
Figure 15: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 66
Figure 16: Transmission and Distribution Market, India, Transmission and Distribution Losses (%), 2001-2013 75
Figure 17: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Cumulative Length of Transmission Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 89
Figure 18: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 93
Figure 19: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Planned Transmission Lines, 2012 97
Figure 20: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Distribution Lines (Ckm), 2000-2020 98
Figure 21: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Electrification-Rate Targets (%), 2012-2031 102
Figure 22: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Power Infrastructure Investment Break-Down (%), 2012-2021 107
Figure 23: Transmission and Distribution Market, Indonesia, Transmission and Distribution Investment Split by Years ($bn), 2012-2021 108
Figure 24: Power Market, Japan, Schematic Representation of Transmission Infrastructure 118
Figure 25: Power Market, Japan, Cumulative Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 119
Figure 26: Japan, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 121
Figure 27: Japan, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 123
Figure 28: Japan, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 125
Figure 29: Japan, Transmission and Distribution Losses (%), 2000-2012 127
Figure 30: Japan, Distribution Substations, 2000-2020 129
Figure 31: Japan, Electricity Investments ($bn), 2004-2011 132
Figure 32: Japan, Breakdown of Electricity Investment into Generation and Transmission and Distribution (%), 2011 133
Figure 33: Power Market, Australia, Schematic Representation of Transmission Networks in National Electricity Market, 2013 141
Figure 34: Power Market, Australia, Cumulative Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 142
Figure 35: Australia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 145
Figure 36: Australia, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 147
Figure 37: Australia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 150
Figure 38: Power Market, Australia, Transmission Investment ($m), Current Regulatory Period 156
Figure 39: Power Market, Australia, Distribution Investment ($m), Current Regulatory Period 157
Figure 40: Power Market, Australia, Transmission Networks, Operating Expenditure ($m), Current Regulatory Period 159
Figure 41: Power Market, Australia, Distribution Networks, Operating Expenditure ($m), Current Regulatory Period 160
Figure 42: Power Market, New Zealand, Schematic Representation of Power Transmission , 2013 168
Figure 43: Power Market, New Zealand, Cumulative Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 169
Figure 44: New Zealand, Transmission Asset Outage Count, 2004-2012 172
Figure 45: New Zealand, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 174
Figure 46: New Zealand, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 176
Figure 47: New Zealand, Schematic Representation of Power Distribution, 2013 180
Figure 48: New Zealand, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 181
Figure 49: New Zealand, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 183

  • Botswana Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 52
    BMI View: Coal-fired power is set to dominate Botswana's power sector as total power generation will grow at an annual average of 38% over our 10-year forecast period. The majority of growth will occur from 2019-2020 as new coal-fired capacity comes online while existing capacity is upgraded, enabling Botswana to be less reliant on electricity imports. Latest Updates And Structural Trends ? Botswana's government has stated that it will approach two South Korean firm......
  • Columbia Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 59
    BMI View: Venezuela's suspension of natural gas exports to Colombia will increase pressure on the Colombian power system in 2016 as the country ramps up thermal generation to weather the drought brought on by El Niño. Weighing further on the stability of Colombia's electricity system, the country's power fleet has suffered a number of technical accidents. In late February, one of the turbines of the 610MW Termoflores plant was damaged. While the government announced it is......
  • Denmark Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 53
    BMI View: This quarter our fundamental assumptions for Denmark continue to be relevant. Taking into account positive macroeconomic expectations for the Nordic region as well as sector trends, we continue to expect power consumption growth in 2016. Similarly, we maintain our long-held view that, while growth expectations in the region are improving, economic woes in the eurozone remain a major risk factor for the consumption and generation outlook of the country, as more r......
  • Finland Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 50
    BMI View: This quarter we have slightly revised our forecasts, as we expect coal-fired power to contract further as a result of Finnish plans to phase-down coal by the late 2020s. At the same time we have upgraded our forecast for biomass-fired power generation as we believe that it will form a key component of Finnish renewables strategy over the next decade, owing to the government's aim to restructure the country's forest-related industry - in order to adapt to a fall ......
  • Ghana Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 53
    BMI View: Underperforming hydropower and gas feedstock irregularities will keep Ghana's power generation subdued over our 10-year forecast period. An annual average growth rate of 2.2% is forecast, driven mostly by new gas-fired capacity and the commissioning of the Ayitepa wind farm. Significant potential for thermal power investment remains, provided gas exploration obstacles are overcome. Latest Updates And Structural Trends ? The second phase of the Asogli gas-f......
  • Global Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 52
    BMI View: Growth in electricity generation and all types of capacity will be driven primarily by the expansion in Asia's power sector over our forecast period, as strong economic growth, power sector reform and demand for electricity necessitate investment in electricity supply. Coal will remain the primary source of fuel for global power generation over our forecast period, as many Asian countries look to meet power demand using cheap fuel - despite mounting pressure to ......
  • Mozambique Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 51
    BMI View: Mozambican power generation will remain subdued, owing to a lack of progress on planned power plants throughout our 10-year forecast period. Gas and coal reserves provide opportunities for growth in thermal power generation, while investments into grid infrastructure will be required to boost electrification rates. Latest Updates and Structural Trends ? A gas-fired power plant is being planned for the city of Maputo, to be completed in 2018. With a g......
  • Namibia Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 55
    BMI View: Namibia will remain a net-importer of electricity due to lack of new power projects coming online. Political and pricing issues cause delays to gas-fired and hydroelectric power projects. We expect this will lead to an increase in non-hydropower renewables investment, as is evidenced by new solar and wind power projects being planned. Latest Updates And Structural Trends ? The Erongo gas-fired power plant is on hold, as courts have to decide on whether Xar......
  • Pakistan Power Report Q3 2016
    Published: 24-May-2016        Price: US 1295 Onwards        Pages: 58
    BMI View: A lack of generation capacity, insufficient investment, as well as fuel and water shortages have narrowed the supply/demand margin considerably, negatively impacting economic activity across Pakistan. Supply shortages will be a dominant theme clouding Pakistan's power sector over the near term. Over the medium- to long term, the incorporation of non-hydro renewables into the electricity mix, the surge in coalfired power generation - and consequently the signific......
  • SERVICES
    Value for Money
    We believe in "optimum utilization of available budget and resources". While servicing our clients' (your) market research requirements, we keep the same approach in focus to help you get the best value for your $$s.
    Ever Growing Inventory
    Ranging from the smallest feasible / required data (datasheets, data facts, SWOT analysis, company profiles, etc) to full research reports that help you make decisions, our inventory is updated almost on a daily basis with the latest industry reports from domain experts that track more than 5000 niche sectors.
    One Stop Solution
    Need a custom research report on medical devices market? Require all available business intelligence on 3D printing industry? Exploring F&B sector of a particular country/region? RnRMarketResearch.com is your one-stop-solution to all market intelligence needs. We not only offer custom research and consulting services, we also "bundle" reports to meet your needs and help you fetch the data analysis you require for your business.
    Dedicated Client Engagement
    Not limited to only "finding" relevant reports for you, our client engagement team dedicates its efforts to understand your "business need" and accordingly maps available research data to help you move forward. Call "your" client engagement executive any time of your day and get your questions answered in order to make the correct business decision.
    Saving Time and Efforts
    Simply share your research requirement details with us and let us do all the hard work to find required intelligence for you. When you add up our "one stop solution" and "dedicated client engagement" services mentioned above, you obviously know the time and effort saving you do by working with us.
    Payment Flexibility
    Working with Fortune 500 organizations, we understand the importance of being flexible for payments. Share your payment terms with us and we will surely match up to them to ensure you get access to required business intelligence data without having to wait for the payment to be done.
    Post-Purchase Research Support
    Have questions after reading a report / datasheet bought through us? Not sure about the methodology used for data available in the research? Talk to us / Share your questions with us and if required, we will connect you with the analyst(s)/author(s) of the report(s) and ensure you get satisfactory answers for the same. Need more data / analysis / report(s) on the topic of your research/project? The RnRMarketResearch.com team is here for you 24X7 to support you with your post-purchase requirements. Subscription Offers & Packages (Get in touch with us for more details - sales@rnrmarketresearch.com / +1 888 391 5441 )
    • Ad Hoc
    • Pay - as - you - go / Bucket Subscriptions
    • Fixed Cost for #of reports
    • Customize / Personalize as per your needs