The Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Network Ecosystem: 2021 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

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Date: 06-Jan-2021
No. of pages: 589
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As the 5G era advances, the cellular communications industry is undergoing a revolutionary paradigm shift, driven by technological innovations, liberal regulatory policies and disruptive business models. One important aspect of this radical transformation is the growing adoption of shared and unlicensed spectrum – frequencies that are not exclusively licensed to a single mobile operator.

Telecommunications regulatory authorities across the globe have launched innovative frameworks to facilitate the coordinated sharing of licensed spectrum, most notably the United States' three-tiered CBRS scheme for dynamic sharing of 3.5 GHz spectrum, Germany's 3.7-3.8 GHz licenses for private 5G networks, the United Kingdom's shared and local access licensing model, France's 2.6 GHz licenses for industrial LTE/5G networks, the Netherlands' local mid-band spectrum permits, Japan's local 5G network licenses, Hong Kong's geographically-shared licenses, and Australia's 26/28 GHz area-wide apparatus licenses. Collectively, these ground-breaking initiatives are catalyzing the rollout of shared spectrum LTE and 5G NR networks for a diverse array of use cases ranging from private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries to mobile network densification, FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) and neutral host infrastructure.

In addition, the 3GPP cellular wireless ecosystem is also accelerating its foray into vast swaths of globally and regionally harmonized unlicensed spectrum bands. Although existing commercial activity is largely centered around LTE-based LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) technology whereby license-exempt frequencies are used in tandem with licensed anchors to expand mobile network capacity and deliver higher data rates, the introduction of 5G NR-U in 3GPP's Release 16 specifications paves the way for 5G NR deployments in unlicensed spectrum for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation.

Even with ongoing challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic-induced economic slowdown, SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR RAN (Radio Access Network) infrastructure operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum will account for more than $1.3 Billion by the end of 2021. The market is expected to continue its upward trajectory beyond 2021, growing at CAGR of approximately 44% between 2021 and 2024 to reach nearly $4 Billion in annual spending by 2024.

The “Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Network Ecosystem: 2021 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents a detailed assessment of the shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G network ecosystem including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, key trends, future roadmap, business models, use cases, application scenarios, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also provides global and regional forecasts for shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G RAN infrastructure from 2021 till 2030. The forecasts cover two air interface technologies, two cell type categories, two spectrum licensing models, 12 frequency band ranges, seven use cases and five regional markets.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:


  • Introduction to shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G networks

  • Value chain and ecosystem structure

  • Market drivers and challenges

  • Enabling technologies and concepts including CBRS, LSA/eLSA, local area licensing, LTE-U, LAA/eLAA/FeLAA, 5G NR-U, MulteFire and sXGP

  • Key trends such as private cellular networks, ongoing expansion of 3GPP technologies into industrial IoT settings, neutral host infrastructure, mobile network densification and fixed wireless broadband rollouts

  • Future roadmap of shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G networks

  • Business models, use cases and application scenarios

  • Spectrum availability, allocation and usage across the global, regional and national domains

  • Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives

  • 40 case studies of LTE and 5G NR deployments in shared and unlicensed spectrum

  • Profiles and strategies of more than 280 ecosystem players

  • Strategic recommendations for LTE and 5G NR equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers, enterprises and vertical industries

  • Market analysis and forecasts from 2021 till 2030


Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts for LTE and 5G NR-based RAN equipment operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Air Interface Technologies


  • LTE

  • 5G NR


Cell Types


  • Indoor Small Cells

  • Outdoor Small Cells


Spectrum Licensing Models


  • Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum

  • Unlicensed Spectrum


Frequency Bands


  • Coordinated Shared Spectrum

    • 1.8 GHz

    • 2.3-2.6 GHz

    • 3.3-4.2 GHz C-Band

    • 3.5 GHz CBRS Band

    • 26/28 GHz

    • Other Frequencies



  • Unlicensed Spectrum

    • Sub 1-GHz

    • 1.9 GHz sXGP Band

    • 2.4 GHz

    • 5 GHz

    • 6 GHz

    • Higher Frequencies




Use Cases


  • Mobile Network Densification

  • FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)

  • Cable Operators & New Entrants

  • Neutral Hosts

  • Private Cellular Networks

    • Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses

    • Vertical Industries




Regional Markets


  • North America

  • Asia Pacific

  • Europe

  • Middle East & Africa

  • Latin & Central America


Key Questions Answered

The report provides answers to the following key questions:


  • How big is the opportunity for LTE and 5G NR networks operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum?

  • What trends, drivers and challenges are influencing its growth?

  • What will the market size be in 2024, and at what rate will it grow?

  • Which submarkets and regions will see the highest percentage of growth?

  • What are the existing and candidate shared/unlicensed spectrum bands for the operation of LTE and 5G NR, and what is the status of their adoption worldwide?

  • What are the business models, use cases and application scenarios for shared and unlicensed spectrum?

  • How will CBRS and other coordinated shared spectrum frameworks accelerate the uptake of private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries?

  • How does the integration of shared and unlicensed spectrum relieve capacity constraints faced by traditional mobile operators?

  • What opportunities exist for cable operators, neutral hosts, niche service providers and other new entrants?

  • What is the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G network deployments?

  • Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?

  • What strategies should LTE and 5G NR equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?


Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:


  • Even with ongoing challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic-induced economic slowdown, SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR RAN infrastructure operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum will account for more than $1.3 Billion by the end of 2021. The market is expected to continue its upward trajectory beyond 2021, growing at CAGR of approximately 44% between 2021 and 2024 to reach nearly $4 Billion in annual spending by 2024.

  • Breaking away from traditional practices of spectrum assignment for mobile services that predominantly focused on exclusive-use national licenses, telecommunications regulatory authorities across the globe have launched innovative frameworks to facilitate the coordinated sharing of licensed spectrum.

  • Notable examples include the United States' three-tiered CBRS scheme for dynamic sharing of 3.5 GHz spectrum, Germany's 3.7-3.8 GHz licenses for private 5G networks, the United Kingdom's shared and local access licensing model, France's 2.6 GHz licenses for industrial LTE/5G networks, the Netherlands' local mid-band spectrum permits, Japan's local 5G network licenses, Hong Kong's geographically-shared licenses, and Australia's 26/28 GHz area-wide apparatus licenses.

  • Collectively, these ground-breaking initiatives are catalyzing the rollout of shared spectrum LTE and 5G NR networks for a diverse array of use cases ranging from private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries to mobile network densification, FWA and neutral host infrastructure.

  • In particular, private LTE and 5G networks operating in shared spectrum are becoming an increasingly common theme. For example, Germany's national telecommunications regulator BNetzA (Federal Network Agency) has received more than a hundred applications for private 5G licenses in 2020 alone. Dozens of purpose-built 5G networks are already in operational use by the likes of aircraft maintenance specialist Lufthansa Technik, industrial conglomerate Bosch, automakers and other manufacturing giants.

  • Since the commencement of its local 5G spectrum licensing scheme, Japan has been showing a similar appetite for industrial-grade 5G networks, with initial field trials and deployments being spearheaded by many of the country's largest industrial players including Fujitsu, Mitsubishi Electric, Sumitomo Corporation and Kawasaki Heavy Industries.

  • Among other examples, the 3.5 GHz CBRS shared spectrum band is being utilized to set up private LTE networks across the United States for applications as diverse as remote learning and COVID-19 response efforts in healthcare facilities. 5G NR-based CBRS implementations are also expected to emerge between 2021 and 2022 to better support industrial IoT requirements. Multiple companies including agriculture and construction equipment manufacturer John Deere have already made commitments to deploy private 5G networks in CBRS spectrum.

  • Mobile operators and other cellular ecosystem stakeholders are also seeking to tap into vast swaths of globally and regionally harmonized unlicensed spectrum bands for the operation of 3GPP technologies. Although existing deployments are largely based on LTE-LAA technology whereby license-exempt frequencies are used in tandem with licensed anchors to expand mobile network capacity and deliver higher data rates, standalone cellular networks that can operate solely in unlicensed spectrum – without requiring an anchor carrier in licensed spectrum – are beginning to emerge as well.

  • In the coming years, with the commercial maturity of 5G NR-U technology, we also anticipate to see 5G NR deployments in unlicensed spectrum for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation using the 5 GHz and 6 GHz bands as well as higher frequencies in the millimeter wave range – for example, Australia's 24.25-25.1 GHz band that is being made available for uncoordinated deployments of private 5G networks servicing locations such as factories, mining sites, hospitals and educational institutions.


List of Companies Mentioned:

3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation), 6Harmonics/6WiLInk, 7Layers, Aaeon Technology, ABB, ABiT Corporation, Accelleran, Accenture, Accuver, ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority), ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies), Affirmed Networks, Airgain, Airspan Networks, Airtower Networks, Airwavz Solutions, AKOS (Agency for Communication Networks and Services of the Republic of Slovenia), Akoustis Technologies, Alabama Power Company, Alef Edge, Allen Vanguard Wireless, Alliance of Industrial Internet, Alpha Wireless, Alphabet, Altiostar Networks, Altran, Amazon, Amdocs, American Dream, American Tower Corporation, Amit Wireless, ANACOM (National Communications Authority, Portugal), Angel Stadium, Anritsu Corporation, ANS (Advanced Network Services), Antenna Company, Anterix, Apple, ARCEP (Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques), ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan), Artemis Networks, Askey Computer Corporation, ASOCS, ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute), ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer), AT&T, Athonet, ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions), ATN International, AttoCore, Axell Wireless, Azcom Technology, BAI Communications, Baicells Technologies, Ballast Networks, BBB (BB Backbone Corporation), BBK Electronics Corporation, BearCom, BEC Technologies, Benetel, Benic Solution Corporation, Billion Electric, BIPT (Belgian Institute for Postal Services and Telecommunications), Black Box Corporation, Blackned, BLiNQ Networks, Blue Arcus Technologies, Blue Danube Systems, BNetzA (Federal Network Agency, Germany), Boingo Wireless, Branch Communications, BTI Wireless, BTK (Information and Communications Technologies Authority, Turkey), Bureau Veritas, BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems), BYD, CableFree (Wireless Excellence), CableLabs, Cal.net, Caltta, Cambium Networks, Cambridge Consultants, Carlson Wireless Technologies, Casa Systems, CBRS Alliance, CCI (Communication Components Inc.), CCN (Cirrus Core Networks), CCSA (China Communications Standards Association), CellAntenna Corporation, cellXica, Celona, Centerline Communications, CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations), Charter Communications, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group, Cisco Systems, CITC (Communications and Information Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia), CITRA (Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority, Kuwait), Claro, ClearSky Technologies, Codium Networks, Comba Telecom, CommAgility, CommScope, Compal, COMSovereign, Connectivity Wireless Solutions, Contela, Contour Networks, Corning, Council Rock, Cradlepoint, Crown Castle International Corporation, CTIA, CTS (Communication Technology Services), CTU (Czech Telecommunication Office), Dali Wireless, Dallas Love Field Airport, Danish Energy Agency, DART (Dallas Area Rapid Transit), Dejero Labs, DEKRA, Dell Technologies, Digi International, Digicert, Digital Colony, DKK (Denki Kogyo), Druid Software, DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance), Dynabook, ECT (Hutchison Ports ECT Rotterdam), EETT (Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission), EION Wireless, ENACOM (Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones), Encore Networks, Ericsson, ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea), ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), EXFO, ExRobotics, ExteNet Systems, Facebook, Faena Forum, Faena Hotel Miami Beach, Fairspectrum, FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies), Federated Wireless, FedEx, Fibrolan, FreedomFi, FRTek, Fujitsu, Future Technologies Venture, GCT Semiconductor, GE (General Electric), Gemtek Technology, Geoverse, Getac Technology Corporation, Gogo, Goodman Networks, Google, Granite Telecommunications, Green Packet, HCL Technologies, HFR, Hitachi Kokusai Electric, Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group), HP, HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise), HTNG (Hospitality Technology Next Generation), Huawei, Huber+Suhner, iBwave Solutions, IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium), IMDA (Info-communications Media Development Authority of Singapore), Infomark Corporation, Infosys, Infovista, Innonet, InnoWireless, Inseego Corporation, Insta Group, Intel Corporation, Intenna Systems, InterDigital, IoT4Net, ip.access, IPLOOK Networks, iPosi, ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada), ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector), Jaton Technology, JCI (Japan Communications Inc.), JEMS (Japan EM Solutions), JIT (JI Technology), JMA Wireless, John Deere (Deere & Company), JRC (Japan Radio Company), Juni Global, Kajeet, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kementerian Kominfo (Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Indonesia), Key Bridge Wireless, Keysight Technologies, Kisan Telecom, KLA Laboratories, Kleos, KMW, Koning & Hartman, KORE Wireless, KPN, Kyocera Corporation, Kyrio, Landmark Dividend, Lekha Wireless Solutions, Lemko Corporation, Lenovo, LG Electronics, Lime Microsystems, Lindsay Broadband, Linx Technologies, LS telcom, LTE-U Forum, Lufthansa Technik, M/C Partners, Maven Wireless, Mavenir Systems, MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission), McWane, Memorial Health System, Metaswitch Networks, Metro Network Services, MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan), MiCOM Labs, Microlab, Microsoft Corporation, Midco (Midcontinent Communications), MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China), MitraStar Technology, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, MLB (Major League Baseball), Mobile Mark, Mobilitie, Motorola Mobility, Motorola Solutions, MRT Technology (Suzhou), MSB (M S Benbow & Associates), MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea), MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.), MTI Wireless Edge, MTS (Mobile TeleSystems), MulteFire Alliance, Multi-Tech Systems, Murray City School District, NBTC (National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission, Thailand), NEC Corporation, Nemko, NetCity (GEOS Telecom/GEOS Holding), Netgear, NetNumber, Netvision Telecom, NewEdge Signal Solutions, Nextivity, NGMN Alliance, Nkom (Norwegian Communications Authority), Node-H, Nokia, Nominet, Nsight Telservices, NTC (National Telecommunications Commission, Philippines), NuRAN Wireless, Nutaq Innovation, Ocado, Oceus Networks, Octasic, OFCA (Office of the Communications Authority, Hong Kong), Ofcom (Office of Communications, United Kingdom), OnePlus, ONF (Open Networking Foundation), OPPO, Optage, Oracle Communications, Panasonic Corporation, Panorama Antennas, Parallel Wireless, Parsec Technologies, Pavlov Media, PCTEL, PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory), PGA Tour, Pierson Wireless, Pivot Technology Services, Pivotal Commware, PK Solutions, Polaris Networks, Port of Rotterdam Authority, Potevio, PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority), PTS (Post and Telecom Authority, Sweden), QuadGen Wireless Solutions, Qualcomm, Quantum Wireless, Qucell, Quectel Wireless Solutions, Qulsar, Quortus, Radiocommunications Agency Netherlands, Radisys Corporation, Ranplan Wireless, RATEL (Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services, Serbia), Raycap, RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative), Realme, Rearden, RED Technologies, Redline Communications, Reliance Industries, RF Connect, RFS (Radio Frequency Systems), Rivada Networks, RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited), Robert Bosch, Rohde & Schwarz, Royal Dutch Shell, Ruckus Networks, RuggON Corporation, RWG (Rotterdam World Gateway), Saankhya Labs, SAC Wireless, Safari Telecom, Samsung, Sanjole, SBA Communications Corporation, SCM (Smart City Media), SCRF (State Commission for Radio Frequencies, Russia), SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric) Company, Select Spectrum, Sempra Energy, Seowon Intech, Sequans Communications, Sercomm Corporation, SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China), SGS, Shanghai Smawave Technology, Sharp Corporation, Siemens, Sierra Wireless, SIPG (Shanghai International Port Group), Sivers IMA, Small Cell Forum, Smart City Networks, SmarTone, SoftBank Group, SOLiD, Sony Corporation, Sony Mobile Communications, Southern Company, Southern Linc, Spectrum Effect, Spirent Communications, Sporton International, SQUAN, SSC (Shared Spectrum Company), Star Solutions, STEP CG, STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd), Strata Worldwide, Subtel (Subsecretaría de Telecomunicaciones de Chile), Sumitomo Corporation, Sunwave Communications, SureSite Consulting Group, Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless), Syniverse Technologies, T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics), Tait Communications, Tango Networks, Taoglas, Teal Communications, Tecore Networks, Telewave, Teleworld Solutions, Telit Communications, Telrad Networks, Telsasoft, Tessares, TESSCO Technologies, ThinkRF, Tilson, TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile), Times Square Alliance, TLC Solutions, TRA (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, United Arab Emirates), Traficom (Transport and Communications Agency, Finland), Transit Wireless, Trilogy Networks, TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India), TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea), TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan), TÜV SÜD, U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission), Ubicquia, UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara), UKE (Office of Electronic Communications, Poland), UL, Unizyx Holding Corporation, URSYS, Valid8, Vapor IO, Ventev, Verizon Communications, Vertical Bridge, Verveba Telecom, Viavi Solutions, VINCI Energies, Virtual Network Communications, Vivo, Vodacom Group, Vodafone Germany, Vodafone Group, Wave Wireless, Wavesight, WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance), Westell Technologies, WhiteSpace Alliance, Widelity, Wi-Fi Alliance, Wilson Electronics, Wilus, WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks), Winncom Technologies, WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum), Wireless Telecom Group, WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation), Wytec International, XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum, Yangshan Port, Zebra Technologies, ZenFi Networks, Zinwave, Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology), ZTE, Zyxel Communications.

The Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Network Ecosystem: 2021 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Table of Contents

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 27
1.1 Executive Summary 27
1.2 Topics Covered 29
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 30
1.4 Key Questions Answered 32
1.5 Key Findings 33
1.6 Methodology 36
1.7 Target Audience 37
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 38

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 41
2.1 Spectrum: The Lifeblood of the Wireless Communications Industry 41
2.1.1 Traditional Exclusive-Use Licensed Spectrum 41
2.1.2 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 41
2.2 Why Utilize Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for LTE/5G Networks? 42
2.2.1 Alleviating Capacity Constraints on Mobile Operator Spectrum 42
2.2.2 New Business Models: Neutral Host, Enterprise & Private Cellular Networks 42
2.2.3 Resurgence of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Services 42
2.3 How Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Differs From Traditional Licensed Frequencies 43
2.3.1 Exclusive vs. Shared Use 43
2.3.2 License Fees & Validity 43
2.3.3 Network Buildout & Service Obligations 44
2.3.4 Power Limits & Other Restrictions 44
2.4 Common Approaches to the Utilization of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 44
2.4.1 Coordinated Sharing of Licensed Spectrum 44
2.4.1.1 Authorized Sharing of Licensed Spectrum 44
2.4.1.2 Sub-Leasing of Unused Mobile Operator Frequencies 45
2.4.1.3 Light Licensing 45
2.4.1.4 Local Area Licenses 45
2.4.1.5 Concurrent Shared Access 45
2.4.2 License-Exempt (Unlicensed) Operation 45
2.4.2.1 Dedicated Unlicensed Bands 46
2.4.2.2 Opportunistic Unlicensed Access 46
2.4.3 Database-Assisted Spectrum Coordination 46
2.4.3.1 Manual Coordination 46
2.4.3.2 Semi-Automated Coordination 47
2.4.3.3 AFC (Automated Frequency Coordination) 47
2.4.3.4 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Access) 47
2.5 The Value Chain of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 47
2.5.1 Chipset & Enabling Technology Specialists 48
2.5.2 Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 48
2.5.3 LTE & 5G NR Infrastructure Suppliers 49
2.5.4 Wireless Service Providers 49
2.5.4.1 Mobile Operators 49
2.5.4.2 Fixed-Line Service Providers 49
2.5.4.3 MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) 50
2.5.4.4 Towercos (Tower Companies) 50
2.5.4.5 Neutral Hosts 50
2.5.4.6 Private Network Operators 50
2.5.5 End Users 51
2.5.5.1 Consumers 51
2.5.5.2 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 51
2.5.6 Other Ecosystem Players 51
2.6 Market Drivers 52
2.6.1 Continued Growth of Mobile Data Traffic 52
2.6.2 New Revenue Streams: FWA, IoT & Vertical-Focused Services 53
2.6.3 Private & Neutral Host Network Deployments 53
2.6.4 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Availability 54
2.6.5 Lower Cost Network Equipment & Installation 55
2.6.6 Expanding Ecosystem of Compatible Devices 55
2.7 Market Barriers 56
2.7.1 Cell Site Deployment Challenges 56
2.7.2 Restricted Coverage Due to Transmit Power Limits 56
2.7.3 Interference & Congestion Concerns in Unlicensed Bands 57
2.7.4 Resistance From Other Spectrum Users 57
2.7.5 Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies 57
2.7.6 Economic & Pandemic-Related Factors 58

3 Chapter 3: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Technologies 59
3.1 Coordinated Shared Spectrum Technologies 59
3.1.1 CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service): Three-Tiered Sharing 59
3.1.1.1 Dynamic Access to the 3.5 GHz Band in the United States 59
3.1.1.2 Tiers of Authorization 60
3.1.1.2.1 Tier 1 – Incumbent Access 60
3.1.1.2.2 Tier 2 – PALs (Priority Access Licenses) 61
3.1.1.2.3 Tier 3 – GAA (General Authorized Access) 61
3.1.1.3 CBRS System Architecture & Functional Elements 61
3.1.2 LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing 63
3.1.2.1 Database-Assisted Sharing of the 2.3 – 2.4 GHz Band in Europe 63
3.1.2.2 Functional Architecture of LSA Systems 64
3.1.2.3 eLSA (Evolved LSA): Frequency-Agnostic Sharing for Local Wireless Networks 65
3.1.3 Local Area Licensing of Shared Spectrum 66
3.1.3.1 Germany's 3.7 – 3.8 GHz Licenses for Vertical Industries 66
3.1.3.2 United Kingdom's Shared & Local Access Licenses 66
3.1.3.3 France's 2.6 GHz Licenses for Local Industrial Networks 67
3.1.3.4 Netherlands' Local Mid-Band Spectrum Licensing Model 67
3.1.3.5 Japan's Local 5G Network Licenses 67
3.1.3.6 China's Licensing Framework for Industrial LTE/5G Systems 67
3.1.3.7 Hong Kong's Geographically-Shared Licenses for 5G Networks 68
3.1.3.8 Australia's 26/28 GHz Area-Wide Apparatus Licenses 68
3.1.3.9 Local Licensing Schemes in Other National Markets 68
3.1.4 Other Coordinated Shared Spectrum Technologies 68
3.2 LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 69
3.2.1 LTE-U 69
3.2.1.1 Channel Selection 70
3.2.1.2 CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) 70
3.2.1.3 Opportunistic On-Off Switching 70
3.2.2 LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) 70
3.2.2.1 LBT (Listen-Before Talk): Category 4 & Category 2 LBT 71
3.2.2.2 FS3 (Frame Structure Type 3) for Unlicensed Carriers 72
3.2.2.3 Other LAA Design & Operational Aspects 72
3.2.3 eLAA (Enhanced LAA) 72
3.2.4 FeLAA (Further Enhanced LAA) 73
3.2.5 MulteFire 73
3.2.5.1 Supported Unlicensed Bands 73
3.2.5.2 Building on 3GPP-Specified LAA & eLAA Functionality 73
3.2.5.3 Modifications for Standalone Operation Without Licensed Anchor 74
3.2.5.4 Neutral Host Access, Cellular IoT Optimizations & Additional Capabilities 74
3.2.6 Japan's sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) 74
3.2.6.1 License-Exempt Operation of 1.9 GHz Private LTE Networks 74
3.2.6.2 LBT for Coexistence With PHS & Other sXGP Networks 75
3.2.6.3 Possible Use of 1.9 GHz as an Anchor Band for Local 5G Networks 75
3.2.7 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) 75
3.2.7.1 Modes of Operation 76
3.2.7.1.1 Anchored NR-U 76
3.2.7.1.2 Standalone NR-U 77
3.2.7.2 LBT-Based Channel Access 77
3.2.7.3 Air Interface Refinements for NR-U 78
3.2.7.4 Time-Synchronized NR-U & Future Developments 78

4 Chapter 4: Business Models, Use Cases & Applications 79
4.1 Business Models & Use Cases 79
4.1.1 Service Provider Networks 79
4.1.1.1 Mobile Network Densification & Build-Outs 79
4.1.1.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Broadband 80
4.1.1.3 Mobile Networks for Cable Operators & New Entrants 81
4.1.2 Neutral Host Networks 81
4.1.2.1 Indoor Spaces 82
4.1.2.2 Large Public Venues 82
4.1.2.3 Transport Hubs & Corridors 83
4.1.2.4 High-Density Urban Settings 83
4.1.2.5 Remote and Rural Coverage 83
4.1.3 Private Cellular Networks 84
4.1.3.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 84
4.1.3.2 Vertical Industries 85
4.1.3.2.1 Manufacturing 85
4.1.3.2.2 Transportation 85
4.1.3.2.3 Utilities 86
4.1.3.2.4 Mining 86
4.1.3.2.5 Oil & Gas 86
4.1.3.2.6 Healthcare 87
4.1.3.2.7 Education 87
4.1.3.2.8 Retail & Hospitality 88
4.1.3.2.9 Governments & Municipalities 88
4.1.3.2.10 Other Verticals 88
4.2 Applications 89
4.2.1 Mobile Broadband 89
4.2.2 Home & Business Broadband 89
4.2.3 Voice & Messaging Services 90
4.2.4 High-Definition Video Transmission 90
4.2.5 Telepresence & Video Conferencing 91
4.2.6 Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting 92
4.2.7 IoT (Internet of Things) Networking 92
4.2.8 Wireless Connectivity for Wearables 93
4.2.9 Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality) 94
4.2.10 Real-Time Holographic Projections 95
4.2.11 Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback 95
4.2.12 High-Precision Positioning & Tracking 96
4.2.13 Industrial Automation 96
4.2.14 Remote Control of Machines 97
4.2.15 Connected Mobile Robotics 98
4.2.16 Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles 99
4.2.17 BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones 100
4.2.18 Data-Driven Analytics & Insights 101
4.2.19 Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins 101
4.2.20 Predictive Maintenance of Equipment 102

5 Chapter 5: Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage 103
5.1 Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum 103
5.1.1 1.8 GHz (1710 – 1880 MHz) 103
5.1.2 2.3 GHz (2300 – 2400 MHz) LSA Band 103
5.1.3 2.6 GHz (2570 – 2620 MHz) 104
5.1.4 3.3 – 3.4 GHz 104
5.1.5 3.4 – 3.8 GHz 104
5.1.6 3.5 GHz (3550 – 3700 MHz) CBRS Band 105
5.1.7 3.7 – 3.8 GHz 105
5.1.8 3.8 – 4.2 GHz 106
5.1.9 4.6 – 4.9 GHz 106
5.1.10 26 GHz (24.25 – 27.5 GHz) 106
5.1.11 28 GHz (26.5 – 29.5 GHz, 27.5 – 28.35 GHz) 106
5.1.12 37 – 37.6 GHz 107
5.1.13 Other Bands 107
5.2 License-Exempt (Unlicensed) Spectrum 108
5.2.1 Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 – 700/800/900 MHz) 108
5.2.2 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band (1780 – 1785 MHz, 1875 – 1880 MHz) 108
5.2.3 1.9 GHz sXGP/DECT Band (1880 – 1920 MHz) 108
5.2.4 2.4 GHz (2400 – 2483.5 MHz) 109
5.2.5 5 GHz (5150 – 5925 MHz) 109
5.2.6 6 GHz (5925 – 7125 MHz) 109
5.2.7 57 – 71 GHz 110
5.2.8 Other Bands 110
5.3 North America 110
5.3.1 United States 110
5.3.2 Canada 111
5.4 Asia Pacific 112
5.4.1 Australia 112
5.4.2 New Zealand 113
5.4.3 Japan 113
5.4.4 South Korea 114
5.4.5 China 114
5.4.6 Hong Kong 115
5.4.7 Taiwan 116
5.4.8 Singapore 116
5.4.9 Malaysia 116
5.4.10 Indonesia 117
5.4.11 Philippines 117
5.4.12 Thailand 117
5.4.13 Vietnam 117
5.4.14 Myanmar 118
5.4.15 India 118
5.4.16 Pakistan 118
5.4.17 Rest of Asia Pacific 118
5.5 Europe 119
5.5.1 United Kingdom 119
5.5.2 Ireland 119
5.5.3 France 120
5.5.4 Germany 120
5.5.5 Belgium 121
5.5.6 Netherlands 121
5.5.7 Switzerland 122
5.5.8 Austria 122
5.5.9 Italy 122
5.5.10 Spain 123
5.5.11 Portugal 123
5.5.12 Sweden 123
5.5.13 Norway 124
5.5.14 Denmark 124
5.5.15 Finland 125
5.5.16 Estonia 125
5.5.17 Czech Republic 125
5.5.18 Poland 126
5.5.19 Greece 126
5.5.20 Turkey 126
5.5.21 Bulgaria 127
5.5.22 Romania 127
5.5.23 Hungary 127
5.5.24 Slovenia 127
5.5.25 Croatia 128
5.5.26 Serbia 128
5.5.27 Russia 128
5.5.28 Rest of Europe 129
5.6 Middle East & Africa 129
5.6.1 Saudi Arabia 129
5.6.2 United Arab Emirates 129
5.6.3 Qatar 129
5.6.4 Kuwait 130
5.6.5 Israel 130
5.6.6 South Africa 130
5.6.7 Rest of the Middle East & Africa 130
5.7 Latin & Central America 130
5.7.1 Mexico 130
5.7.2 Brazil 131
5.7.3 Argentina 131
5.7.4 Colombia 131
5.7.5 Chile 131
5.7.6 Rest of Latin & Central America 132

6 Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives 133
6.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 133
6.1.1 Release 13: LAA for Downlink Operation 134
6.1.2 Release 14: eLAA, CBRS & LSA OAM Support 134
6.1.3 Release 15: FeLAA & 5G NR Air Interface 134
6.1.4 Release 16: 5G NR-U & URLLC Features 135
6.1.5 Release 17 & Beyond: Future Evolution of 5G NR in Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 136
6.2 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 136
6.2.1 IMSI Assignment & Management for CBRS 137
6.2.2 Additional CBRS-Related Efforts 137
6.3 CBRS Alliance 137
6.3.1 OnGo Certification Program for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 138
6.3.2 CBRS Network Services & Coexistence Specifications 138
6.3.2.1 Release 1: Baseline Specifications for LTE Systems in the 3.5 GHz Band 138
6.3.2.2 Release 2: Enhanced Specifications in Preparation for OnGo Commercial Service 139
6.3.2.3 Release 3: Incorporation of 3GPP’s 5G Definitions & Standards in the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 139
6.3.2.4 Release Independent Specifications for CBRS Identifiers 140
6.4 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) 140
6.4.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines & Technical Solutions for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 140
6.5 CTIA 141
6.5.1 Product Certification for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 141
6.6 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 141
6.6.1 Advocacy Efforts to Promote Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum 141
6.7 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 142
6.7.1 RRS (Reconfigurable Radio Systems) Technical Committee: Technical Specifications for LSA & eLSA 142
6.7.1.1 LSA in the 2.3 GHz (2300-2400 MHz) Band 142
6.7.1.2 Frequency Agnostic eLSA for Local Wireless Networks 143
6.7.2 BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks) Technical Committee: Harmonized Standards for Wireless Access Systems 143
6.7.2.1 WSD (White Space Devices) Operating in the 470 – 790 MHz Band 143
6.7.2.2 5 GHz RLANs (Radio Local Area Networks) 143
6.7.2.3 6 GHz RLANs 144
6.7.2.4 60 GHz Multi-Gigabit Wireless Systems 144
6.7.2.5 Other Relevant Work 144
6.8 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 144
6.8.1 Standards & Protocols for Interworking Between 3GPP & Unlicensed Technologies 144
6.9 ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector) 145
6.9.1 International Regulation of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 145
6.10 LTE-U Forum 145
6.10.1 Technical Specifications for LTE-U in Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum 146
6.11 MulteFire Alliance 146
6.11.1 Specifications for LTE/5G NR Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 146
6.11.1.1 Release 1.0: LTE Operation in the Unlicensed 5 GHz Band 146
6.11.1.2 Release 1.1: Support for Industrial IoT & Sub-1/1.9/2.4 GHz Spectrum Bands 147
6.11.2 MulteFire Certification Program 147
6.12 NGMN Alliance 147
6.12.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Activates 148
6.13 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) 148
6.13.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Support in the Aether 5G/LTE ECaaS (Edge-Cloud-as-a-Service) Platform 148
6.14 Small Cell Forum 148
6.14.1 Work Related to License-Exempt & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 149
6.15 WhiteSpace Alliance 149
6.15.1 Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum 149
6.16 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 150
6.16.1 SSC (Spectrum Sharing Committee): CBRS Standards 150
6.16.1.1 Release 1: CBRS Baseline Standards 150
6.16.1.2 Release 2: Enhancements to CBRS Baseline Standards 151
6.16.1.3 Administration of Root Certificate Authority, Professional Installer Training & CBSD Certification Programs 152
6.16.2 6MSC (6 GHz Multi-Stakeholder Planning Committee) 152
6.16.3 Other Committees 152
6.17 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum 153
6.17.1 Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed LTE Service 153
6.18 Others 153
6.18.1 National Government Agencies & Regulators 153
6.18.2 Vertical Industry Associations 154
6.18.3 Non-3GPP Technology Alliances 154

7 Chapter 7: Case Studies of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Deployments 155
7.1 American Dream: Transforming Retail & Entertainment Using CBRS-Powered Wireless Connectivity 155
7.1.1 Spectrum Type 155
7.1.2 Integrators & Suppliers 155
7.1.3 Deployment Summary 156
7.2 Angel Stadium: Private LTE & 5G-Ready CBRS Network for Powering Critical Support Systems 157
7.2.1 Spectrum Type 157
7.2.2 Integrators & Suppliers 157
7.2.3 Deployment Summary 157
7.3 AT&T: Tapping Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for Mobile Network Densification & FWA 158
7.3.1 Spectrum Type 158
7.3.2 Integrators & Suppliers 158
7.3.3 Deployment Summary 158
7.4 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation): 1.9 GHz sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 161
7.4.1 Spectrum Type 161
7.4.2 Integrators & Suppliers 161
7.4.3 Deployment Summary 161
7.5 BYD SkyRail: Unlicensed 5 GHz Wireless System for Railway Communications 163
7.5.1 Spectrum Type 163
7.5.2 Integrators & Suppliers 163
7.5.3 Deployment Summary 163
7.6 Cal.net: LTE-Based CBRS Network for Bridging the Digital Divide in Rural California 164
7.6.1 Spectrum Type 164
7.6.2 Integrators & Suppliers 164
7.6.3 Deployment Summary 164
7.7 Charter Communications: Transforming MVNO & FWA Service Offerings With CBRS Shared Spectrum 165
7.7.1 Spectrum Type 165
7.7.2 Integrators & Suppliers 165
7.7.3 Deployment Summary 165
7.8 Chunghwa Telecom: Utilizing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum to Enhance Mobile Broadband Experience 167
7.8.1 Spectrum Type 167
7.8.2 Integrators & Suppliers 167
7.8.3 Deployment Summary 167
7.9 Dallas Love Field Airport: Private LTE Network for Internal Operations & Passenger Experience 168
7.9.1 Spectrum Type 168
7.9.2 Integrators & Suppliers 168
7.9.3 Deployment Summary 168
7.10 DART (Dallas Area Rapid Transit): CBRS-Powered Smart Media & Communications Platform 169
7.10.1 Spectrum Type 169
7.10.2 Integrators & Suppliers 169
7.10.3 Deployment Summary 169
7.11 Faena Hotel & Forum: LTE-Based CBRS Network for Improving Mobile Connectivity 171
7.11.1 Spectrum Type 171
7.11.2 Integrators & Suppliers 171
7.11.3 Deployment Summary 171
7.12 FedEx: Leveraging CBRS Shared Spectrum for Wireless Communications in Hub Facilities 172
7.12.1 Spectrum Type 172
7.12.2 Integrators & Suppliers 172
7.12.3 Deployment Summary 172
7.13 Fujitsu: Establishing Japan's First Private 5G Network Using Locally Licensed 28.2 – 28.3 GHz Spectrum 173
7.13.1 Spectrum Type 173
7.13.2 Integrators & Suppliers 173
7.13.3 Deployment Summary 173
7.14 Geoverse: Pioneering Neutral Host & Private Wireless Networks With CBRS Shared Spectrum 175
7.14.1 Spectrum Type 175
7.14.2 Integrators & Suppliers 175
7.14.3 Deployment Summary 175
7.15 Gogo: Capitalizing on Unlicensed 2.4 GHz Spectrum for LTE/5G-Ready A2G (Air-to-Ground) Network 176
7.15.1 Spectrum Type 176
7.15.2 Integrators & Suppliers 176
7.15.3 Deployment Summary 176
7.16 John Deere: Private Cellular Connectivity for Manufacturing Processes & Agricultural Applications 178
7.16.1 Spectrum Type 178
7.16.2 Integrators & Suppliers 178
7.16.3 Deployment Summary 178
7.17 Kawasaki Heavy Industries: Connecting Smart Factory Robotics With Private 5G 179
7.17.1 Spectrum Type 179
7.17.2 Integrators & Suppliers 179
7.17.3 Deployment Summary 179
7.18 Lufthansa Technik: Industrial-Grade 5G Campus Networks for Aircraft Maintenance Operations 180
7.18.1 Spectrum Type 180
7.18.2 Integrators & Suppliers 180
7.18.3 Deployment Summary 180
7.19 Memorial Health System: LTE-Based CBRS Network to Support COVID-19 Response Efforts 182
7.19.1 Spectrum Type 182
7.19.2 Integrators & Suppliers 182
7.19.3 Deployment Summary 182
7.20 Midco (Midcontinent Communications): Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for Rural Broadband Connectivity 183
7.20.1 Spectrum Type 183
7.20.2 Integrators & Suppliers 183
7.20.3 Deployment Summary 183
7.21 Mitsubishi Electric: 5G NR-Based Industrial Wireless System for Factory Automation 184
7.21.1 Spectrum Type 184
7.21.2 Integrators & Suppliers 184
7.21.3 Deployment Summary 184
7.22 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems): Delivering Gigabit-Grade LTE Services Using LAA Technology 186
7.22.1 Spectrum Type 186
7.22.2 Integrators & Suppliers 186
7.22.3 Deployment Summary 186
7.23 Murray City School District: LTE-Based Private CBRS Network for K-12 Education 187
7.23.1 Spectrum Type 187
7.23.2 Integrators & Suppliers 187
7.23.3 Deployment Summary 187
7.24 NetCity (GEOS Telecom): Unlicensed Sub-1 GHz LTE Network for AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) 188
7.24.1 Spectrum Type 188
7.24.2 Integrators & Suppliers 188
7.24.3 Deployment Summary 188
7.25 New York’s Times Square: Improving Public Mobile Connectivity With CBRS Shared Spectrum 190
7.25.1 Spectrum Type 190
7.25.2 Integrators & Suppliers 190
7.25.3 Deployment Summary 190
7.26 Ocado: Custom-Built LTE Network Over Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum for Warehouse Automation 192
7.26.1 Spectrum Type 192
7.26.2 Integrators & Suppliers 192
7.26.3 Deployment Summary 192
7.27 PGA Tour: LTE-Based CBRS Networks to Improve Wireless Coverage & Security at Golf Tournaments 194
7.27.1 Spectrum Type 194
7.27.2 Integrators & Suppliers 194
7.27.3 Deployment Summary 194
7.28 PK Solutions: CBRS-Powered Private Wireless Connectivity for Oil & Gas Companies 196
7.28.1 Spectrum Type 196
7.28.2 Integrators & Suppliers 196
7.28.3 Deployment Summary 196
7.29 Port of Rotterdam: Locally Licensed 3.7 GHz LTE Network for Business-Critical Applications 197
7.29.1 Spectrum Type 197
7.29.2 Integrators & Suppliers 197
7.29.3 Deployment Summary 197
7.30 RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative): Building the Farm of the Future With CBRS Spectrum 199
7.30.1 Spectrum Type 199
7.30.2 Integrators & Suppliers 199
7.30.3 Deployment Summary 199
7.31 Robert Bosch: Automating & Digitizing Manufacturing Facilities With Private 5G Networks 200
7.31.1 Spectrum Type 200
7.31.2 Integrators & Suppliers 200
7.31.3 Deployment Summary 200
7.32 SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric) Company: Private LTE Network for Mission-Critical Communications 202
7.32.1 Spectrum Type 202
7.32.2 Integrators & Suppliers 202
7.32.3 Deployment Summary 202
7.33 SmarTone: Effectively Managing Traffic Surges With Strategically Located LAA Small Cells 203
7.33.1 Spectrum Type 203
7.33.2 Integrators & Suppliers 203
7.33.3 Deployment Summary 203
7.34 Southern Linc: Expanding LTE Network Capacity for Utility Communications With CBRS Shared Spectrum 204
7.34.1 Spectrum Type 204
7.34.2 Integrators & Suppliers 204
7.34.3 Deployment Summary 204
7.35 Strata Worldwide: Streamlining Mining Operations With Combined Low-Band & CBRS Spectrum Networks 206
7.35.1 Spectrum Type 206
7.35.2 Integrators & Suppliers 206
7.35.3 Deployment Summary 206
7.36 UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara): Outdoor CBRS Network for On-Campus IoT Services 207
7.36.1 Spectrum Type 207
7.36.2 Integrators & Suppliers 207
7.36.3 Deployment Summary 207
7.37 URSYS: Bringing Cellular Connectivity to Rural Areas and Outlying Regions With Unlicensed Spectrum 208
7.37.1 Spectrum Type 208
7.37.2 Integrators & Suppliers 208
7.37.3 Deployment Summary 208
7.38 Verizon Communications: Exploiting 3.5 GHz CBRS & 5 GHz Spectrum to Address Capacity Demands 209
7.38.1 Spectrum Type 209
7.38.2 Integrators & Suppliers 209
7.38.3 Deployment Summary 209
7.39 Vodacom Group: Employing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum To Improve LTE Network Capacity & Performance 212
7.39.1 Spectrum Type 212
7.39.2 Integrators & Suppliers 212
7.39.3 Deployment Summary 212
7.40 Yangshan Port: Unlicensed 5 GHz LTE Network for Automated Container Terminal Operations 213
7.40.1 Spectrum Type 213
7.40.2 Integrators & Suppliers 213
7.40.3 Deployment Summary 213

8 Chapter 8: Market Sizing & Forecasts 215
8.1 Global Outlook for Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 215
8.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 216
8.2.1 LTE 217
8.2.2 5G NR 218
8.3 Segmentation by Cell Type 219
8.3.1 Indoor Small Cells 220
8.3.2 Outdoor Small Cells 221
8.4 Segmentation by Spectrum Licensing Model 222
8.4.1 Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum 223
8.4.2 Unlicensed Spectrum 224
8.5 Segmentation by Frequency Band 225
8.5.1 Coordinated Shared Spectrum 225
8.5.1.1 1.8 GHz 226
8.5.1.2 2.3 – 2.6 GHz 227
8.5.1.3 3.3 – 4.2 GHz C-Band 228
8.5.1.4 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 229
8.5.1.5 26/28 GHz 230
8.5.1.6 Other Frequencies 231
8.5.2 Unlicensed Spectrum 232
8.5.2.1 Sub-1 GHz 233
8.5.2.2 1.9 GHz sXGP Band 234
8.5.2.3 2.4 GHz 235
8.5.2.4 5 GHz 236
8.5.2.5 6 GHz 237
8.5.2.6 Higher Frequencies 238
8.6 Segmentation by Use Case 239
8.6.1 Mobile Network Densification 240
8.6.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 241
8.6.3 Cable Operators & New Entrants 242
8.6.4 Neutral Hosts 243
8.6.5 Private Cellular Networks 244
8.6.5.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 245
8.6.5.2 Vertical Industries 246
8.7 Regional Outlook 247
8.7.1 North America 248
8.7.2 Asia Pacific 249
8.7.3 Europe 250
8.7.4 Middle East & Africa 251
8.7.5 Latin & Central America 252

9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players 253
9.1 6Harmonics/6WiLInk 253
9.2 ABiT Corporation 254
9.3 Accelleran 255
9.4 Accuver (InnoWireless) 256
9.5 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 257
9.6 Affirmed Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 258
9.7 Airgain 259
9.8 Airspan Networks 260
9.9 Airtower Networks 262
9.10 Airwavz Solutions 263
9.11 Akoustis Technologies 264
9.12 Alef Edge 265
9.13 Allen Vanguard Wireless 266
9.14 Alpha Wireless 267
9.15 Altiostar Networks 268
9.16 Altran 269
9.17 Amazon 271
9.18 Amdocs 273
9.19 American Tower Corporation 275
9.20 Amit Wireless 276
9.21 Anritsu Corporation 277
9.22 ANS (Advanced Network Services) 278
9.23 Antenna Company 279
9.24 Anterix 280
9.25 Apple 281
9.26 Artemis Networks (Rearden) 282
9.27 ASOCS 283
9.28 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 284
9.29 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)/Askey Computer Corporation 286
9.30 Athonet 287
9.31 ATN International 288
9.32 AttoCore 289
9.33 Axell Wireless 290
9.34 Azcom Technology 291
9.35 BAI Communications/Transit Wireless 292
9.36 Baicells Technologies 293
9.37 Ballast Networks 294
9.38 BearCom 295
9.39 BEC Technologies 296
9.40 Benetel 297
9.41 Billion Electric 298
9.42 Black Box Corporation 299
9.43 Blackned 300
9.44 Blue Arcus Technologies 301
9.45 Blue Danube Systems 302
9.46 Boingo Wireless 303
9.47 Branch Communications 304
9.48 BTI Wireless 305
9.49 Bureau Veritas/7Layers 306
9.50 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems) 307
9.51 CableFree (Wireless Excellence) 308
9.52 CableLabs/Kyrio 309
9.53 Cambium Networks 310
9.54 Cambridge Consultants 311
9.55 Carlson Wireless Technologies 312
9.56 Casa Systems 313
9.57 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)/BLiNQ Networks 315
9.58 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks) 316
9.59 CellAntenna Corporation 317
9.60 cellXica 318
9.61 Celona 319
9.62 Centerline Communications 320
9.63 CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group 321
9.64 Cisco Systems 323
9.65 ClearSky Technologies 325
9.66 Codium Networks 326
9.67 Comba Telecom 327
9.68 CommAgility (Wireless Telecom Group) 329
9.69 CommScope/Ruckus Networks 330
9.70 Compal 332
9.71 COMSovereign 333
9.72 Connectivity Wireless Solutions (M/C Partners) 334
9.73 Contela 335
9.74 Corning 336
9.75 Council Rock 338
9.76 Cradlepoint (Ericsson) 339
9.77 Crown Castle International Corporation 340
9.78 CTS (Communication Technology Services) 341
9.79 Dali Wireless 342
9.80 Dejero Labs 343
9.81 DEKRA 344
9.82 Dell Technologies 345
9.83 Digi International 346
9.84 Digicert 347
9.85 DKK (Denki Kogyo) 348
9.86 Druid Software 349
9.87 EION Wireless 350
9.88 Encore Networks 351
9.89 Ericsson 352
9.90 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) 354
9.91 EXFO 355
9.92 ExteNet Systems (Digital Colony) 356
9.93 Facebook 357
9.94 Fairspectrum 360
9.95 FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)/JEMS (Japan EM Solutions) 361
9.96 Federated Wireless 362
9.97 Fibrolan 364
9.98 FreedomFi 365
9.99 FRTek 366
9.100 Fujitsu 367
9.101 Future Technologies Venture 369
9.102 GCT Semiconductor 370
9.103 GE (General Electric) 371
9.104 Gemtek Technology 372
9.105 Geoverse (ATN International) 373
9.106 Getac Technology Corporation 374
9.107 Goodman Networks 375
9.108 Google (Alphabet) 376
9.109 Granite Telecommunications 378
9.110 Green Packet 379
9.111 HCL Technologies 380
9.112 HFR 381
9.113 Hitachi Kokusai Electric 382
9.114 Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group) 383
9.115 HP 384
9.116 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) 385
9.117 Huawei 387
9.118 Huber+Suhner 389
9.119 iBwave Solutions (Corning) 390
9.120 Infomark Corporation 391
9.121 Infosys 392
9.122 Infovista 393
9.123 Innonet 394
9.124 Inseego Corporation 395
9.125 Insta Group 396
9.126 Intel Corporation 397
9.127 Intenna Systems 399
9.128 InterDigital 400
9.129 IoT4Net 401
9.130 ip.access (Mavenir Systems) 402
9.131 IPLOOK Networks 404
9.132 iPosi 405
9.133 Jaton Technology 406
9.134 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)/Contour Networks 407
9.135 JIT (JI Technology) 408
9.136 JMA Wireless 409
9.137 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 410
9.138 Juni Global 412
9.139 Kajeet 413
9.140 Key Bridge Wireless 414
9.141 Keysight Technologies 415
9.142 Kisan Telecom 417
9.143 KLA Laboratories 418
9.144 Kleos 419
9.145 KMW 420
9.146 KORE Wireless 421
9.147 Kyocera Corporation 422
9.148 Landmark Dividend 423
9.149 Lekha Wireless Solutions 424
9.150 Lemko Corporation 425
9.151 Lenovo/Motorola Mobility 426
9.152 LG Electronics 428
9.153 Lime Microsystems 429
9.154 Lindsay Broadband 430
9.155 Linx Technologies 431
9.156 LS telcom 432
9.157 Maven Wireless 433
9.158 Mavenir Systems 434
9.159 Metaswitch Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 436
9.160 Metro Network Services 437
9.161 MiCOM Labs 438
9.162 Microlab 439
9.163 Microsoft Corporation 440
9.164 MitraStar Technology (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 442
9.165 Mobile Mark 443
9.166 Mobilitie 444
9.167 Motorola Solutions 445
9.168 MRT Technology (Suzhou) 447
9.169 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates) 448
9.170 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.) 449
9.171 MTI Wireless Edge 450
9.172 Multi-Tech Systems 451
9.173 NEC Corporation 452
9.174 Nemko 454
9.175 Netgear 455
9.176 NetNumber 456
9.177 Netvision Telecom 457
9.178 NewEdge Signal Solutions 458
9.179 Nextivity 459
9.180 Node-H 460
9.181 Nokia 461
9.182 Nominet 463
9.183 Nsight Telservices 464
9.184 NuRAN Wireless/Nutaq Innovation 465
9.185 Oceus Networks 466
9.186 Octasic 468
9.187 OPPO/Vivo/OnePlus/Realme (BBK Electronics Corporation) 469
9.188 Oracle Communications 470
9.189 Panasonic Corporation 471
9.190 Panorama Antennas 472
9.191 Parallel Wireless 473
9.192 Parsec Technologies 474
9.193 Pavlov Media 475
9.194 PCTEL 476
9.195 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory) 477
9.196 Pierson Wireless 478
9.197 Pivot Technology Services 479
9.198 Pivotal Commware 480
9.199 Polaris Networks 481
9.200 Potevio 482
9.201 QuadGen Wireless Solutions 483
9.202 Qualcomm 484
9.203 Quantum Wireless 486
9.204 Qucell (InnoWireless) 487
9.205 Quectel Wireless Solutions 488
9.206 Qulsar 489
9.207 Quortus 490
9.208 Radisys Corporation (Reliance Industries) 492
9.209 Ranplan Wireless 494
9.210 Raycap 495
9.211 RED Technologies 496
9.212 Redline Communications 497
9.213 RF Connect 498
9.214 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 499
9.215 Rivada Networks 500
9.216 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited) 501
9.217 Rohde & Schwarz 502
9.218 RuggON Corporation 503
9.219 Saankhya Labs 504
9.220 SAC Wireless (Nokia) 505
9.221 Samsung 506
9.222 Sanjole 508
9.223 SBA Communications Corporation 509
9.224 Select Spectrum 510
9.225 Seowon Intech 511
9.226 Sequans Communications 512
9.227 Sercomm Corporation 513
9.228 SGS 514
9.229 Shanghai Smawave Technology 515
9.230 Sharp Corporation/Dynabook (Foxconn) 516
9.231 Siemens 517
9.232 Sierra Wireless 518
9.233 Sivers IMA 519
9.234 Smart City Networks 520
9.235 SOLiD 521
9.236 Sony Corporation 522
9.237 Spectrum Effect 524
9.238 Spirent Communications 525
9.239 Sporton International 527
9.240 SQUAN 528
9.241 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company) 529
9.242 Star Solutions 530
9.243 STEP CG 532
9.244 STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd) 533
9.245 Sunwave Communications 534
9.246 SureSite Consulting Group 535
9.247 Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless) 536
9.248 Syniverse Technologies 537
9.249 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics) 538
9.250 Tait Communications 539
9.251 Tango Networks 540
9.252 Taoglas 541
9.253 Teal Communications 542
9.254 Tecore Networks 543
9.255 Telewave 544
9.256 Teleworld Solutions 545
9.257 Telit Communications 546
9.258 Telrad Networks 547
9.259 Telsasoft 548
9.260 Tessares 549
9.261 TESSCO Technologies 550
9.262 ThinkRF 551
9.263 Tilson 552
9.264 TLC Solutions 553
9.265 TÜV SÜD 554
9.266 Ubicquia 555
9.267 UL 556
9.268 Valid8 557
9.269 Vapor IO 558
9.270 Vertical Bridge (Digital Colony) 559
9.271 Verveba Telecom 560
9.272 Viavi Solutions 561
9.273 Virtual Network Communications (COMSovereign) 563
9.274 Wave Wireless 564
9.275 Wavesight 565
9.276 Westell Technologies 566
9.277 Widelity 567
9.278 Wilson Electronics 568
9.279 Wilus 569
9.280 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks) 570
9.281 Winncom Technologies 571
9.282 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 572
9.283 Wytec International 574
9.284 Zebra Technologies 575
9.285 ZenFi Networks 576
9.286 Zinwave (McWane) 577
9.287 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology) 578
9.288 ZTE 579
9.289 Zyxel Communications (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 581

10 Chapter 10: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations 582
10.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? 582
10.2 Future Roadmap: 2021 – 2030 583
10.2.1 2021 – 2024: LTE & 5G NR Deployments in CBRS, Shared Mid-Band & 26/28 GHz Spectrum 583
10.2.2 2025 – 2029: Commercial Maturity of Shared Spectrum 5G NR Networks for Industrial IoT 584
10.2.3 2030 & Beyond: Worldwide Ubiquity of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 584
10.3 Fostering Innovation Through Shared Spectrum Frameworks 585
10.4 Availability of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Bands 585
10.5 Transforming the Cellular Communications Industry 586
10.6 Private Cellular Networks for Enterprises & Vertical Industries 586
10.7 Bringing 5G NR Connectivity to Industrial IoT Settings 586
10.8 Densification of Mobile Operator Networks in the 5G Era 587
10.9 Accelerating FWA & Rural Broadband Rollouts 587
10.10 Indoor Demand Driving Localized Wireless System Build-Outs 588
10.11 Moving Towards the Neutral Host Model 588
10.12 The Emergence of New Entrants in the Cellular Industry 588
10.13 COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact on Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Deployments 589
10.14 Strategic Recommendations 589
10.14.1 LTE/5G Equipment Suppliers & System Integrators 589
10.14.2 Mobile Operators, Neutral Hosts & Other Service Providers 590
10.14.3 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 591

List of Figures

Figure 1: The Value Chain of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 48
Figure 2: CBRS Tiers of Authorization 60
Figure 3: CBRS System Architecture 62
Figure 4: Functional Architecture of LSA 64
Figure 5: Spectrum Access Schemes Supported by eLSA 65
Figure 6: Anchored & Standalone NR-U 76
Figure 7: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Technology Standardization in 3GPP Releases 13 – 17 135
Figure 8: WInnForum's CBRS Standards 151
Figure 9: IoT Services Over BBB's sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 162
Figure 10: Charter Communications' Infrastructure-Based MVNO Platform 166
Figure 11: Fujitsu's Private 5G Network at the Shin-Kawasaki Technology Square Office 174
Figure 12: Licensed & Unlicensed Spectrum Use in Gogo's ATG (Air-to-Ground) Network 177
Figure 13: Mitsubishi Electric's Local 5G System for Factory Automation 185
Figure 14: Ocado's 4G-Based Wireless Control System for Warehouse Automation 193
Figure 15: Verizon's Spectrum Portfolio 210
Figure 16: Yangshan Port's Unlicensed 5.8 GHz LTE Network 214
Figure 17: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 215
Figure 18: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 215
Figure 19: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 216
Figure 20: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 216
Figure 21: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 217
Figure 22: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 217
Figure 23: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 218
Figure 24: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 218
Figure 25: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 219
Figure 26: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Type: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 219
Figure 27: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 220
Figure 28: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 220
Figure 29: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 221
Figure 30: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 221
Figure 31: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 222
Figure 32: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 222
Figure 33: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 223
Figure 34: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 223
Figure 35: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 224
Figure 36: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 224
Figure 37: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 225
Figure 38: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 225
Figure 39: 1.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 226
Figure 40: 1.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 226
Figure 41: 2.3 – 2.6 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 227
Figure 42: 2.3 – 2.6 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 227
Figure 43: 3.3 – 4.2 GHz C-Band Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 228
Figure 44: 3.3 – 4.2 GHz C-Band Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 228
Figure 45: 3.5 GHz CBRS Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 229
Figure 46: 3.5 GHz CBRS Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 229
Figure 47: 26/28 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 230
Figure 48: 26/28 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 230
Figure 49: Other Frequency Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 231
Figure 50: Other Frequency Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 231
Figure 51: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 232
Figure 52: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 232
Figure 53: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 233
Figure 54: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 233
Figure 55: 1.9 GHz sXGP Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 234
Figure 56: 1.9 GHz sXGP Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 234
Figure 57: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 235
Figure 58: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 235
Figure 59: 5 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 236
Figure 60: 5 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 236
Figure 61: 6 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 237
Figure 62: 6 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 237
Figure 63: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 238
Figure 64: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 238
Figure 65: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Use Case: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 239
Figure 66: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Use Case: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 239
Figure 67: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Mobile Network Densification: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 240
Figure 68: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Mobile Network Densification: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 240
Figure 69: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for FWA: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 241
Figure 70: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for FWA: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 241
Figure 71: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 242
Figure 72: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 242
Figure 73: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Neutral Hosts: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 243
Figure 74: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Neutral Hosts: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 243
Figure 75: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Private Cellular Networks: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 244
Figure 76: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Private Cellular Networks: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 244
Figure 77: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 245
Figure 78: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 245
Figure 79: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Vertical Industries: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 246
Figure 80: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Vertical Industries: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 246
Figure 81: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 247
Figure 82: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 247
Figure 83: North America Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 248
Figure 84: North America Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 248
Figure 85: Asia Pacific Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 249
Figure 86: Asia Pacific Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 249
Figure 87: Europe Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 250
Figure 88: Europe Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 250
Figure 89: Middle East & Africa Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 251
Figure 90: Middle East & Africa Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 251
Figure 91: Latin & Central America Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2021 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 252
Figure 92: Latin & Central America Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2021 – 2030 ($ Million) 252
Figure 93: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum RAN Investments by Air Interface Technology: 2021 – 2024 ($ Million) 582
Figure 94: Future Roadmap for Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks: 2021 – 2030 583

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