Intelligent Vehicle E/E Architecture Research Report, 2022

Publisher Name :
Date: 31-Aug-2022
No. of pages: 420

E/E architecture research: 14 key technologies, and innovative layout of 24 OEMs.

Key technologies of next-generation electronic and electrical architectures (EEA)

The definition of next-generation E/E architectures involves: high computing power HPC for vehicle-cloud architecture integration; high-bandwidth, high-speed backbone network for inter-domain cooperative computing; service-oriented architecture (SOA) that enables software and hardware decoupling, generalized software/hardware architecture and standardized interfaces; complete development tool chain that uses the V-model development process; support for L4 advanced driving assistance; intelligent low-voltage power supply architecture.

For the development of next-generation E/E architectures, we have summarized 14 key technologies. The following lists and analyzes the progress in some key technologies:

Key technologies of EEA: complete development tool chain, advanced architecture standards, and V-model-based EEA development process.

Currently there is no global automotive EEA standard. ISO 26262 Road Vehicles-Functional Safety, ISO/SAE 21434 Road Vehicles-Cybersecurity Engineering, and GB/T 34590 Road Vehicles-Functional Safety among others provide a reference for design and optimization of automotive EEAs.

In China, in April 2021 Automotive Electronic and Electrical Architecture Working Group was reviewed and established at the second council of the third session of China Industry Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance for Electric Vehicle. At present, experts from over 35 companies including OEMs, architecture solution providers, software firms, communication companies, and testing tools and services providers have participated.

In China, the formulation of automotive EEA standards forges ahead very rapidly. There have been several group or organization standards filed or released, including:

•Data Distribution Service (DDS) Test Methods for Intelligent Connected Vehicles

•Technical Requirements for Security of Automotive Ethernet Switch Equipment

•Technical Requirements for Vehicle Time Sensitive Network Middleware

•Software-Defined Vehicle Service API Reference Specification 2.0

•11 Group Standards in SparkLink Release 1.0

•Technical Requirements and Test Methods for Vehicle Dedicated Short-distance Wireless Transmission System

Key technologies of EEA: computing power tends to be centralized and cluster in cloud, enabling vehicle-cloud architecture integration.

Vehicles are heading in the direction of brain-inspired intelligence + central nerves + terminal nerves. At present, semiconductor vendors inside and outside China are developing and designing vehicle computing center chips with strong computing power for intelligent vehicles. These chips use multi-core parallel CPUs, GPUs for graphics and image processing, and AI computing accelerators. A typical example is NVIDIA ORIN which boasts multi-task parallel computing capabilities for powering cockpits, autonomous driving, AI and more.

In the future, as vehicle high-speed network and 5G technologies mature, vehicles will eventually tend to be based on central computers and centralized EEA, and evolve towards cooperative vehicle-cloud control; and computing power will be centralized and cluster in cloud to avoid the unlimited expansion of computing power of vehicle terminals.

Key technologies of EEA: CP+AP AUTOSAR, SOA software, generalized software/hardware architecture and interface standards.

Vehicle software architectures evolve towards CP+AP AUTOSAR hybrid software architecture. CP AUTOSAR is oriented to the vehicle control domain that requires high reliability and high real-time performance. AP AUTOSAR targets intelligent driving and entertainment domains that need parallel processing of massive data. It also allows standardized design according to functional characteristics of interfaces, and integrates interface designs to build a general interface platform.

With SOA software, automakers enable open ecosystems for development of application services (interfaces are open to the outside), differentiation of scene function development (combination and splicing of any sub-service), and rapid iteration of single scene-based functions (only requiring the reconfiguration of sub-services). In the X-EEA 3.0 architecture of Xpeng Motors, SOA software is primarily applied to cockpit platforms.

Key technologies of EEA: cross-domain communication protocols (SOME/IP and DDS), Gigabit Ethernet backbone network + TSN + Switch, and high-bandwidth/high-speed communication network, combine to achieve inter-domain high-speed communication and cooperative computing.

Body networks need to meet the performance requirements for the sheer volume of data, high-speed transmission, low latency and high real-time performance. Backbone networks have been Ethernet + CAN-FD high-speed networks, providing the foundation for the cross-domain communication protocol SOME/IP + DDS. The mainstream communication middleware SOME/IP and DDS have their own advantages.

As well as communication middleware, vehicle cloud platforms currently prefer to use MQTT, a communication protocol that allows devices to easily and flexibly connect to IoT cloud services, such as real-time online vehicle data analysis and monitoring, OTA, HD map applications, vehicle big data, and Al analysis.

Key technologies of EEA: vehicle dedicated short-range wireless communication.

In China, SparkLink Alliance was founded in September 2020. Following the launch of SparkLink Release 1.0 in late 2021, the Alliance introduced test instruments and also started the filing of SparkLink Release 2.0 2022H1. Several chip members in the organization have created specific chip-based road signs and plan to launch commercial chips in 2022H2. Based on commercial chips, bellwethers in major industries have formulated development plans for commercial terminals which are projected to come out in 2023.

"SparkLink" short-range wireless communication technology is often used in: immersive vehicle sound zone and noise reduction, wireless interactive mirroring, in-vehicle wireless ambient lighting, 360-degree panoramic surround view, and wireless BMS (battery management system).

Cadillac LYRIQ is the world's first one to introduce the wireless battery management system (wBMS), a disruptive technology which reduces 90% battery pack wiring harnesses, and corresponding connectors and plug-ins, fundamentally avoiding the problem of wiring harness aging. Meanwhile, the internal space saved by fewer battery pack wiring harnesses enables more flexible layout and configuration and accommodates more chips to increase the cruising range.

Cadillac uses the wireless battery management system (wBMS) solutions from Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI).

OEMs are stepping up their pace of evolving EEA

Stage 1: domain centralized architecture

Such architectures as Volkswagen E3, Great Wall Motor's GEEP3.0 Architecture, BYD's E Platform 3.0, Geely's Sustainable Experience Architecture (SEA) and Xpeng's EE 2.0 are all typical domain centralized architectures.

In Volkswagen E3's case, this architecture is composed of three domain controllers: vehicle control (ICAS1), intelligent driving (ICAS2), and intelligent cockpit (ICAS3). ICAS1 and ICAS3 have been developed and mounted on models like ID.3 and ID.4, while ICAS2 has not been developed yet. The driving assistance functions are currently called via distributed ECUs and ICAS1.

The MEB architecture passes through two stages: E3 1.1 and E3 1.2. The platform offers continuously evolving and optimized functions. Starting from 2025, all the three automakers Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche will use the E3 2.0 SSP (Scalable Systems Platform), a central computing platform which may be first available to the Audi Artemis project.

Stage 2: quasi-central computing architecture, to enable multi-domain integration (e.g., cockpit and driving integration).

Z-ONE's E/E architecture Galaxy Full Stack 3.0 uses two master-slave high-performance computing units, namely, HPC1 and HPC2, to enable the capabilities of intelligent driving, intelligent cockpit, intelligent computing, and intelligent driving backup, and plus 4 zone controllers, realizes related functions in each zone to fully support L4+ intelligent driving technologies. The architecture will integrate different network communication technologies like CAN FD, Gigabit Ethernet, and 5G, ensuring that a vehicle has powerful enough brain pathways.

SAIC Z-ONE Full Stack 3.0, A Quasi-central EEA Enabling Cockpit and Driving Integration

Stage 3: central computing architecture, with computing power centralized in a supercomputing platform, and the pace of mass production possibly faster than expected.

The framework of the central computing architecture consists of a central computing unit, zone controllers and high-speed Ethernet. The cooperation of the three builds an adaptive and self-learning system to realize intelligent connectivity and high-level autonomous driving.

NIO's central computing unit boasts computing power of more than 1000TOPS, and over 1GHz master frequency. It may use NVIDIA Adam supercomputing platform;

NIO's zone controllers highlight the following functions: distributed edge computing, vehicle control arbitration center, information communication network for SOA service communication, zonal centralized data center, vehicle power distribution hub, and sensor and actuator data exchange. Considering the limited computing resources in zone controllers, NIO uses AMP multi-core architecture in zone controllers for integration and isolation of cross-domain functions, and the RTOS in the AMP mode runs one operating system case on each CPU.

Through the lens of development trends, automotive EEA will eventually evolve to central computing architectures with functional logics centralized in one central controller. OEMs become ever more radical in EEA planning. For emerging carmakers and conventional OEMs, the year of 2023 will be a key time node to mass-produce the next-generation "central computing + zone controller" architectures.

Moreover, as computing platforms with ultra-high computing power are production-ready and software technology iterates rapidly, central computing architectures may even be spawned in the five years to come at the earliest.

Intelligent Vehicle E/E Architecture Research Report, 2022

Table of Contents

1 Key Technologies of Automotive E/E Architecture Updates

1.1 Evolution of Automotive E/E Architecture
1.1.1 Four Dimensions of Automotive E/E Architecture Updates
1.1.2 Development Trend of Automotive E/E Architecture
1.1.3 Automotive E/E Architecture Evolution Trends in the Next Decade
1.1.4 Key Technologies for Building the Next-generation E/E Architecture
1.1.5 Core Elements and Features for Building the Next-generation E/E Architecture (1)
1.1.6 Core Elements and Features for Building the Next-generation E/E Architecture (2)
1.2 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Architecture Standardization
1.2.1 Automotive EEA Standards: Standardization Requirements Framework
1.2.2 Automotive EEA Standards: ISO 26262 & GB/T 34590 Related Standards
1.2.3 Automotive EEA Standards: Automotive EEA Working Group Established
1.2.4 Automotive EEA Standards: Problems to be Solved by Automotive EEA WG
1.2.5 Automotive EEA Standards: Roadmap & Group Standard of Automotive EEA WG
1.2.6 Automotive EEA Standards (1)
1.2.7 Automotive EEA Standards (2)
1.2.8 Automotive EEA Standards (3)
1.2.9 Automotive EEA Standards (4)
1.2.10 Automotive EEA Standards (5)
1.2.11 Automotive EEA Standards (6)
1.2.12 Automotive EEA Standards (7)
1.2.13 Automotive EEA Standards (8)
1.2.14 Automotive EEA Standards (9)
1.2.15 Automotive EEA Standards (10)
1.3 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Complete Development Process
1.3.1 Development Process of Automotive EEA (1)
1.3.2 Development Process of Automotive EEA (2)
1.3.3 Development Process of Automotive EEA (3)
1.4 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Supercomputing Chip and Vehicle-Cloud Integration Computing
1.4.1 Current Typical Domain Control Hardware Architecture
1.4.2 Trends of Domain Control Hardware Architecture Updates
1.4.3 Trends of the Next-generation Hardware Architecture (1)
1.4.4 Trends of the Next-generation Hardware Architecture (2)
1.4.5 Trends of the Next-generation Hardware Architecture (3)
1.4.6 Trends of the Next-generation Hardware Architecture (4)
1.4.7 Trends of the Next-generation Hardware Architecture (5)
1.5 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: AP AUTOSAR & SOA Software
1.5.1 Software Architecture Updates (1)
1.5.2 Software Architecture Updates (2)
1.5.3 Software Architecture Updates (3)
1.5.4 Software Architecture Updates (4)
1.5.5 Software Architecture Updates (5)
1.5.6 Software Architecture Updates (6)
1.5.7 Software Architecture Updates (7)
1.5.8 Software Architecture Updates (8)
1.5.9 Software Architecture Updates (9)
1.6 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Communication Architecture (SOME/IP&DDS)
1.6.1 Communication Architecture Updates (1)
1.6.2 Communication Architecture Updates (2)
1.6.3 Communication Architecture Updates (3)
1.6.4 Communication Architecture Updates (4)
1.6.5 Communication Architecture Updates (5)
1.6.6 Communication Architecture Updates (6)
1.6.7 Communication Architecture Updates (7)
1.6.8 Communication Architecture Updates (8)
1.7 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Communication Architecture (Wireless Short-range Communication Technology)
1.7.1 Automotive Short-range Wireless Communication Standard Establishment and Development in China
1.7.2 Five TOP Application Scenarios of SparkLink Alliance
1.8 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Communication Architecture
1.8.1 Three Development Stages of Automotive Ethernet
1.8.2 Development of Ethernet: EVBA and TSN (Time-Sensitive Network)
1.8.3 Core of L4 Autonomous Driving System: TSN Ethernet Switch and 802.1CB Protocol
1.8.4 Medium for Core Domain Control Data Exchange in EEA: Switch (1)
1.8.5 Medium for Core Domain Control Data Exchange in EEA: Switch (2)
1.8.6 Medium for Core Domain Control Data Exchange in EEA: Switch (3)
1.9 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Communication Architecture (High-speed Gateway)
1.9.1 Evolution Trends of Distributed Gateway, Central Gateway and Ethernet Gateway Topology
1.9.2 Central Gateway Will Change Automotive Architecture
1.9.3 Gateway Controllers Play the Role of Automotive Data Servers in the Future E/E Architectures
1.9.4 The Computing Performance of the New Service Gateway Controller Will Be Improved by More Than Ten Times
1.9.5 Automotive Gateway of Future SOA Architecture (ie. Zonal)
1.9.6 Automotive Gateway SoC Control Chips and Communication Protocols
1.9.7 Innovative Next-generation Gateway System Should Support Various High-speed I/O
1.9.8 DRA829V Automotive Computing Gateway Platform of Texas Instruments
1.9.9 TI' Jacinto DRA821 Processor Is Used in the Zonal EEA Gateway
1.10 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Automotive OS, Microkernel and Hypervisor
1.10.1 Layered Design of Software Defined Vehicle Architecture
1.10.2 Automotive Operating System Basic Platform (1)
1.10.3 Automotive Operating System Basic Platform (2)
1.10.4 Microkernel Operating Systems
1.10.5 Hypervisor
1.11 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Security Technology
1.11.1 Trends of Next-generation E/E Architecture Security Technology
1.11.2 Core Elements of Next -generation E/E Architecture Communication Security Assurance
1.11.3 Next-generation E/E Architecture Functional Safety Development Technology
1.12 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Tool Chain
1.12.1 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Tool Chain Application Technology
1.13 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Zonal Controller
1.13.1 The Next-generation E/E Architecture Computing Centralized + Zonal Controller
1.13.2 Zonal EEA Framework
1.13.3 Design Solution of ZCU
1.13.4 Coordination between ZCU and Other Sensors & Actuators in the Zone
1.14 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Power Architecture (Redundancy Strategy)
1.14.1 Power Supply Network System of Autonomous Vehicles
1.14.2 Dual Power Supply System and Control Strategy Design
1.14.3 Working Modes and Main Diagnosis Strategies of Automotive Dual Power Supply System
1.15 Key Technologies of E/E Architecture: Power Architecture (Low-voltage Intelligent Distribution Network)
1.15.1 Power Architecture Updates (1)
1.15.2 Power Architecture Updates (2)
1.15.3 Power Architecture Updates (3)
1.15.4 Development Process of Fuse Boxes
1.15.5 Current Mainstream Fuse Boxes
1.15.6 Efuse Intelligent Power Distribution Products
1.15.7 Intelligent MOSFET Replaces Traditional Fuses and Mechanical Relays
1.15.8 Features and Advantages of Intelligent MOSFET Electrical Boxes
1.15.9 Arrangement of Intelligent MOSFET Electrical Boxes
1.15.10 Three Development Stages of Intelligent MOSFET Electrical Boxes
1.15.11 Controller Node Power Distribution of Tesla Model 3
1.15.12 Power Distribution Strategy of Volvo's SPA2 Domain Control Architecture
1.15.13 Hierarchical Power Distribution Strategy of Visteon's Zonal (Domain Control) E/E Architecture
1.15.14 Intelligent Power Distribution for Vehicle Partitions of Visteon's Zonal (Domain Control) E/E Architecture
1.15.15 Aptiv's SMART FUSE Power Distribution and Domain Controller (1)
1.15.16 Aptiv's SMART FUSE Power Distribution and Domain Controller (2)

2 E/E Architecture Revolution for OEMs and Tier1s
2.1 Business Model Revolution between OEMs and Tier1 Suppliers under New E/E Architecture
2.1.1 Cooperation Modes between OEMs and Tier1 Suppliers under Traditional Distributed Architecture
2.1.2 Cooperation Modes between OEMs and Tier1 Suppliers under Domain Control Architecture (1)
2.1.3 Cooperation Modes between OEMs and Tier1 Suppliers under Domain Control Architecture (2)
2.1.4 E/E Architecture Revolution (1)
2.1.5 E/E Architecture Revolution (2)
2.1.6 E/E Architecture Revolution (3)
2.1.7 E/E Architecture Revolution (4)
2.1.8 E/E Architecture Revolution (5)
2.1.9 E/E Architecture Revolution (6)
2.1.10 E/E Architecture Revolution (7)
2.1.11 E/E Architecture Revolution (8)
2.2 Reference Architecture of E/E Architecture Evolution
2.2.1 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: 2025-2030
2.2.2 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2025 (Cross-domain Controller + Server) (1)
2.2.3 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2025 (Cross-domain Controller + Server) (2)
2.2.4 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2025(Master Controller in Future Power Architecture)
2.2.5 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2030(Central Server + Zonal Controller)
2.2.6 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2030 (Bus Topology)
2.2.7 E/E Architecture Evolution Directions: Reference Architecture in 2030 (Low-voltage Power Supply Topology)
2.3 E/E Architecture Comparison of OEMs
2.3.1 E/E Architecture Roadmap of Automakers (1)
2.3.2 E/E Architecture Roadmap of Automakers (2)
2.3.3 Features of E/E Architecture of Major OEMs (1)
2.3.4 Features of E/E Architecture of Major OEMs (2)
2.3.5 Features of E/E Architecture of Major OEMs (3)
2.3.6 Features of E/E Architecture of Major OEMs (4)
2.3.7 OEMs Will Focus on Domain Hybrid before 2025

3 E/E Architecture of Emerging Automakers
3.1 Tesla
3.1.1 EEA Evolution: Technical Route (1)
3.1.2 EEA Evolution History: Model S, Model X, Model 3 (1)
3.1.3 EEA Evolution History: Model S, Model X, Model 3 (2)
3.1.4 EEA Evolution History: Model S EEA Topology
3.1.5 EEA Evolution History: Model X EEA Topology
3.1.6 EEA Evolution History: Model 3 EEA Topology
3.1.7 EEA Evolution History: Model 3 EEA Features
3.1.8 EEA Evolution History: Model 3 EEA Linux OS
3.1.9 EEA System Design: CCM (Central Computing Module) +3 Zonal Controllers
3.1.10 EEA Hardware Architecture (Autopilot): Circuit Boards of HW3.0
3.1.11 EEA Hardware Architecture (Autopilot): Sensor Configuration of HW3.0
3.1.12 EEA Hardware Architecture (Intelligent Cockpit): Iteration History of MCU1/ MCU2/ MCU3
3.1.13 EEA Hardware Architecture (Intelligent Cockpit): Parameter Comparisons of MCU1/ MCU2/ MCU3
3.1.14 EEA Hardware Architecture (Intelligent Cockpit): Framework Comparisons of MCU2 / MCU3 System
3.1.15 EEA Hardware Architecture (Intelligent Cockpit): Circuit Board of MCU2
3.1.16 EEA Software Architecture: SOA Software Stack
3.1.17 EEA Communication Architecture: ECU and Network Type Node (1)
3.1.18 EEA Communication Architecture: ECU and Network Type Node (2)
3.1.19 EEA Power Supply Architecture: Intelligent Power Distribution Box Architecture (1)
3.1.20 EEA Power Supply Architecture: Intelligent Power Distribution Box Architecture (2)
3.1.21 EEA Power Supply Architecture: Intelligent Power Distribution Box Architecture (3)
3.1.22 EEA Zonal Controller: Distribution of 3 Body Controllers (1)
3.1.23 EEA Zonal Controller: Distribution of 3 Body Controllers (2)
3.1.24 EEA Zonal Controller: Distribution of 3 Body Controllers (3)
3.1.25 Zonal Controller: System Architecture
3.1.26 Zonal Controller: Functions
3.1.27 Zonal Controller: Interface Function and Location Layout of Front Body Controller
3.1.28 Zonal Controller: Function Definitions of Front Body Controller
3.1.29 Zonal Controller: Circuit Board Disassembly of Front Body Controller
3.1.30 Zonal Controller: Interface Function and Location Layout of Left Body Controller
3.1.31 Zonal Controller: Function Definitions of Left Body Controller
3.1.32 Zonal Controller: Circuit Board Disassembly of Left Body Controller
3.1.33 Zonal Controller: Interface Function and Location Layout of Right Body Controller
3.1.34 Zonal Controller: Function Definitions of Right Body Controller
3.1.35 Zonal Controller: Circuit Board Disassembly of Right Body Controller
3.1.36 Zonal Controller: Iteration of Gen1-Gen3 Zonal Control Board (1)
3.1.37 Zonal Controller: Iteration of Gen1-Gen3 Zonal Control Board (2)
3.1.38 Zonal Controller: Iteration of Gen4 Zonal Control Board
3.2 Xpeng
3.2.1 EEA Evolution: E/E 1.0-E/E 3.0
3.2.2 EEA Evolution: Autonomous Driving Domain Control XPU 2.5 - XPU 5.0
3.2.3 X-EEA 2.0: Autonomous Driving Platform
3.2.4 X-EEA 2.0: Smart Cockpit Xmart OS 1.0-3.0
3.2.5 X-EEA 3.0: Central Supercomputing (3 Computing Clusters) + Zonal Control (Z-DCU)
3.2.6 X-EEA 3.0 Hardware Architecture: Central Supercomputing Platform
3.2.7 X-EEA 3.0 Software Architecture: Central Computing Domain and Intelligent Driving Domain Software Architecture
3.2.8 X-EEA 3.0 Software Architecture: SOA (1)
3.2.9 X-EEA 3.0 Software Architecture: SOA (2)
3.2.10 X-EEA 3.0 Software Architecture: SOA (3)
3.2.11 X-EEA 3.0 Communication Architecture: Ethernet +CANFD
3.3 NIO
3.3.1 EEA Evolution Roadmap: NP1 / NP2 Platform
3.3.2 EEA Evolution Roadmap: Next-generation Architecture Platform
3.3.3 NP2 EEA Hardware Architecture: ADAM + AQUILA (1)
3.3.4 NP2 EEA Hardware Architecture: ADAM + AQUILA (2)
3.3.5 NP2 EEA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Cockpit
3.3.6 NP2 EEA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Chassis Domain Controller ICC (1)
3.3.7 NP2 EEA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Chassis Domain Controller ICC (2)
3.3.8 NP2 EEA Communication Architecture: Connected Central Gateway LION Fusion Body Domain
3.3.9 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: Architecture Topology
3.3.10 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: Function Features
3.3.11 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: SOA Software
3.3.12 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: Cross-domain Function Fusion and Isolation
3.3.13 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: AMP (1)
3.3.14 Central Computing + Zonal Controller EEA: AMP (1)
3.4 Li Auto
3.4.1 EEA Evolution: LEEA1.0 - LEEA3.0
3.4.2 LEEA 2.0 Hardware Architecture: AD Max
3.4.3 LEEA 2.0 Hardware Architecture: Autonomous Driving Algorithms
3.4.4 LEEA 2.0 Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Cockpit
3.4.5 LEEA 2.0 Hardware Architecture: Central Domain Controller (XCU)
3.4.6 LEEA 3.0 Hardware Architecture: Central Computing Platform + 4 Zonal Controllers
3.4.7 LEEA 3.0 Hardware Architecture: CCU Central Computing Unit (1)
3.4.8 LEEA 3.0 Hardware Architecture: CCU Central Computing Unit (2)
3.4.9 LEEA 3.0 Hardware Architecture: Zonal Controller
3.4.10 LEEA 3.0 Communication Architecture: PCIe Switch and TSN Switch
3.4.11 LEEA 3.0 Software Architecture: Definition and Deployment of Multi-layer Services
3.4.12 LEEA 3.0 Software Architecture: LiOS (Li auto OS)
3.5 Human Horizons
3.5.1 HOA Architecture: System Topologies
3.5.2 HOA Architecture Partners (1)
3.5.3 HOA Architecture Partners (2)
3.5.4 HOA Hardware Architecture: Autonomous driving (HiPhi Z) (1)
3.5.5 HOA Hardware Architecture: Autonomous driving (HiPhi Z) (2)
3.5.6 HOA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Cockpit (HiPhi Z) (3)
3.5.7 HOA Software Architecture: HiPhi Play
3.6 ENOVATE
3.6.1 EEA Evolution
3.6.2 iMA EEA Architecture: 5 Levels of High Integration from Bottom to Top
3.6.3 iMA EEA Hardware Architecture: Power Domain Control VBU
3.7 JIDU
3.7.1 JET EEA: Support for Four-domain Integration Computing
3.7.2 EEA Software Architecture: SOA "Cockpit-Driving Integration" Technology
3.7.3 EEA Hardware Architecture: Autonomous Driving and Intelligent Cockpit
3.7.4 EEA Hardware Architecture: Software Integration Simulation Prototype SIMUCar2.0
3.7.5 EEA Hardware Architecture: Integration of Chassis Domain and Intelligent Driving Domain
3.8 Neta
3.8.1 EEA Evolution
3.8.2 EEA Hardware Architecture: TAPILOT4.0 (1)
3.8.3 EEA Hardware Architecture: TAPILOT4.0 (2)
3.8.4 EEA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Cockpit
3.8.5 EEA Hardware Architecture: Intelligent Power Control Domain
3.8.6 EEA Hardware Architecture: Self-developed Tiangong Battery (1)
3.8.7 EEA Hardware Architecture: Self-developed Tiangong Battery (2)
3.8.8 EEA Hardware Architecture: Self-developed Tiangong Battery (3)
3.8.9 EEA Hardware Architecture: Thermal Management System

4 E/E Architecture of Independent Brands
4.1 Geely
4.1.1 EEA Evolution: GEEA 2.0 — GEEA 3.0
4.1.1 EEA Hardware Architecture: SiEngine Cockpit and Autonomous Driving SoC
4.1.2 EEA Software Architecture: SOA Architecture
4.1.3 EEA Software Architecture: Cross-domain Fusion Operating System-Geely Galaxy OS
4.1.4 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: Architecture Features
4.1.5 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: Central Computing Electronic Architecture -GEEA3.0
4.1.6 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: SOA-based OS
4.1.7 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: PMT-SOA Service Design Toolchain Transformation
4.1.8 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: PMT-SOA Software Asset Transformation and Reuse Solution
4.1.9 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: PMT-SOA Service Design Methodology
4.1.10 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: PMT-SOA Service Design Specification
4.1.11 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: GOS-Multiprotocol Multi-OS Compatible
4.1.12 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: Developer Platform and Toolchain
4.1.13 GEEA3.0 EEA System Development: Agile Development with Continuous Iteration
4.1.14 ZEEKR EEA Evolution: EE 2.0 — EE 3.0
4.1.15 ZEEKR EE2.0 Software Architecture: ZEEKR OS Intelligent Cockpit
4.1.16 ZEEKR EE3.0 Software Architecture: SOA-based OTA Solution
4.2 Great Wall Motor
4.2.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
4.2.2 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Architecture Feature
4.2.3 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: 3 Computing Platforms + 3 Zonal Controllers
4.2.4 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Hardware Platform
4.2.5 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: SOA Software Framework (1)
4.2.6 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: SOA Software Framework (2)
4.2.7 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Full-stack Security
4.2.8 GEEP 5.0 Central Computing EEA: Central Brain + Zonal Controller
4.3 GAC
4.3.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
4.3.2 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: 3 Computing Units + 4 Zonal Controllers
4.3.3 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: Features
4.3.4 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: Hardware Platform (1)
4.3.5 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: Hardware Platform (2)
4.3.6 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: SOA Software Platform
4.3.7 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: GAC Pusai OS System Framework
4.3.8 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: ADiGO
4.3.9 GA3.0 Xingling EEA: User Co-creation Platform
4.4 BYD
4.4.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
4.4.2 e-Platform 3.0 EEA: System Design
4.4.3 e-Platform 3.0 EEA: Multi-domain Computing Ideas
4.4.4 e-Platform 3.0 EEA: Integrated Left/Right Body Controller
4.4.5 e-Platform 3.0 EEA: Intelligent Power Domain (1)
4.4.6 e-Platform 3.0 EEA: Intelligent Power Domain (2)
4.5 SAIC
4.5.1 EEA Evolution: Galaxy Full-stack 1.0, Galaxy Full-stack 3.0
4.5.2 Z-One EEA Technology Framework: SOA Platform (1)
4.5.3 Z-One EEA Technology Framework: SOA Platform (2)
4.5.4 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: 2 Central Computing Units + 4 Zonal Controllers
4.5.5 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Cockpit-Driving Integration HPC
4.5.6 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Cockpit-Driving Integration Software Architecture
4.5.7 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: SOA Software Ecosystem
4.5.8 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Cloud-Pipe-End SOA Integrated Software
4.5.9 Z-One Full-stack 3.0 (Quasi) Central EEA: Cooperation Ecosystem
4.5.10 IM EEA Layout: Software/Hardware/Communication Architecture
4.5.11 IM EEA Layout: Intelligent Cockpit
4.6 Changan
4.6.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
4.6.2 SDV-based SDA Architecture
4.6.3 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Topology
4.6.4 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Thinking of Architecture Expansion
4.6.5 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Service-oriented Solution
4.6.6 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Service-oriented Communications
4.6.7 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Backbone Network Communication
4.6.8 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Near Field Communication
4.6.9 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Hardware I/O Standardization
4.6.10 "Central + Looped Network " EEA: Information Security
4.7 FAW Hongqi
4.7.1 EEA Evolution: FEEA2.0 & FEEA3.0
4.7.2 FEEA2.0 EEA: Features
4.7.3 FEEA2.0 EEA: Intelligent Cockpit Platform
4.7.4 FEEA3.0 EEA: Three Platforms of SmartControl, SmartEnjoy and SmartDrive
4.7.5 FEEA3.0 EEA:TSN Ethernet Multi-Domain Controller
4.8 Higer
4.8.1 "Pro-Blue"mini Bus EEA: Framework
4.8.2 "Pro-Blue"mini Bus EEA: Platforms for Each System (1)
4.8.3 "Pro-Blue"mini Bus EEA: Platforms for Each System (2)
4.8.4 "Pro-Blue"mini Bus EEA: Autonomous Driving System Framework

5 E/E Architecture of Foreign Brands
5.1 Volkswagen
5.1.1 EEA Evolution: MQB—MEB—SSP
5.1.2 EEA Evolution: E(3) 1.1/1.2/2.0
5.1.3 MQB Platform EEA: Communication Topology (1)
5.1.4 MQB Platform EEA: Communication Topology (2)
5.1.5 MQB Platform EEA: System Architecture
5.1.6 MEB Platform EEA: Introduction
5.1.7 MEB Platform EEA: Detailed Architecture Topology of ID.4
5.1.8 MEB Platform EEA: Communication Network Connection of ID.4
5.1.9 MEB Platform EEA: Network Architecture Topology of ID.4
5.1.10 MEB Platform EEA: Network Architecture Index Definition and Bus Layout of ID.4
5.1.11 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS Architecture of ID.4
5.1.12 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS Computing Architecture of ID.4
5.1.13 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS Internal Communications Architecture of ID.4
5.1.14 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS1 and ICAS3 Functional Partition of ID.4
5.1.15 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS1 Vehicle Control Domain Functional Partition
5.1.16 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS3 Functional Partition of ID.4
5.1.17 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS3 Master Control Chip of ID.4
5.1.18 MEB Platform EEA: ICAS2 Assisted Driving Domain of ID.4
5.1.19 MEB Platform EEA: Smart Antenna System of ID.4
5.1.20 MEB Platform EEA: OCU Connection of ID.4
5.1.21 MEB Platform EEA: High-voltage System Network Topology of ID.4
5.1.22 MEB Platform EEA: Brake System Network Topology of ID.4
5.1.23 MEB Platform EEA: SOA Software Architecture (1)
5.1.24 MEB Platform EEA: SOA Software Architecture (2)
5.1.25 MEB Platform EEA: SOA Software Architecture (3)
5.1.26 MEB Platform EEA: Cloud Service Architecture
5.1.27 MEB Platform EEA: Cybersecurity Architecture
5.1.28 E³ 2.0 EEA: Development Process
5.1.29 E³ 2.0 EEA: CARIAD Software Platform (1)
5.1.30 E³ 2.0 EEA: CARIAD Software Platform (2)
5.1.31 E³ 2.0 EEA: VW.OS
5.1.32 SSP Architecture: Both PPE and MEB will be Integrated into the Future SSP Architecture
5.1.33 SSP Architecture: EEA Design
5.1.34 SSP Architecture: Model Planning
5.2 BMW
5.2.1 EEA Evolution
5.2.2 Mass-produced EEA: Architecture Topology
5.2.3 Mass-produced EEA: Specific Meaning of Each Node in the Architecture Topology
5.2.4 Mass-produced EEA: Ethernet Communication Node
5.2.5 Mass-produced EEA: HU-H Cockpit System Architecture
5.2.6 Mass-produced EEA: HU-H Connected System Architecture
5.2.7 Mass-produced EEA: ADAS System Hardware Configuration
5.2.8 Mass-produced EEA: ADAS System Architecture and Meaning of Each Node
5.2.9 Zonal EEA: Architecture Design Ideas
5.2.10 Zonal EEA:Quasi-central Computing (2 Computing Clusters) + Zonal Controller
5.2.11 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Architecture Topology
5.2.12 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Hardware Architecture Adopts 2 Computing Clusters
5.2.13 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Dynamic Resource Scheduling DRS
5.2.14 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Communication Architecture and SOA Solutions
5.2.15 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Automotive Communication Network
5.2.16 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Autonomous Driving Hardware (Aptiv+EyeQ5)
5.2.17 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Autonomous Driving Hardware (Valeo + Qualcomm)
5.2.18 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Intelligent Cockpit Planning
5.2.19 Next-generation Zonal EEA: Neue Klasse Architecture Planning
5.3 Mercedes-Benz
5.3.1 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Network Architecture Overview
5.3.2 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Network Topology Connection
5.3.3 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 High-speed Communication Bandwidth (1)
5.3.4 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 High-speed Communication Bandwidth (2)
5.3.5 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 High-speed Communication Bandwidth (3)
5.3.6 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Automotive Ethernet Network Topology
5.3.7 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Service-oriented Communication (1)
5.3.8 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Service-oriented Communication (2)
5.3.9 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Service-oriented Communication (3)
5.3.10 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Network and Information Security
5.3.11 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 12V Power Supply Architecture
5.3.12 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Architecture Topology
5.3.13 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Architecture Topology Function Definition (1)
5.3.14 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Architecture Topology Function Definition (2)
5.3.15 Mass-produced EEA: STAR3 Architecture Topology Function Definition (3)
5.4 Toyota
5.4.1 Zonal Architecture: Central Brain + Cross-domain Controller
5.4.2 Zonal Architecture: Evolution Path of Software Platform (BSW)
5.4.3 Zonal Architecture: EEA Evolution and AUTOSAR BSW Migration
5.4.4 Zonal Architecture: Software Development Strategy
5.4.5 Zonal Architecture: Adaptive Software Platform
5.4.6 Zonal Architecture: Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) System Development
5.4.7 Zonal Architecture: Cybersecurity and Encryption Algorithm
5.4.8 Zonal Architecture: Woven Planet Acquired Lyft's Self-Driving Division
5.4.9 Zonal Architecture: Acquired Renovo Motors to Expand Open Vehicle Development Platform Arene
5.5 General Motors
5.5.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
5.5.2 EEA Evolution: Global A?Global B
5.5.3 EEA Evolution: Technical Features of VIP Intelligent Electronic Architecture
5.5.4 EEA Evolution: Technical Features (1)
5.5.5 EEA Evolution: Technical Features (2)
5.6 Volvo
5.6.1 EEA Evolution: Technology Route
5.6.2 SPA1 EEA: Domain Centralized
5.6.3 SPA2 EEA: Three Computing Clusters VCU + Zonal Controller VIU
5.6.4 SPA2 EEA: System Topology
5.6.5 SPA2 EEA: System Development Steps (Phase 1)
5.6.6 SPA2 EEA: System Development Steps (Phase 2)
5.6.7 SPA2 EEA: Vehicle Computation Unit
5.6.8 SPA2 EEA: Software Development for Central Computing Platform (1)
5.6.9 SPA2 EEA: Software Development for Central Computing Platform (2)
5.6.10 SPA2 EEA: Software Development for Central Computing Platform (3)
5.6.11 SPA2 EEA: Software Development for Central Computing Platform (4)
5.6.12 SPA2 EEA: Software Development for Central Computing Platform (5)
5.6.13 SPA2 EEA: Core Development Team in China
5.6.14 SPA2 EEA: Planned for release in 2022
5.6.15 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: Central Computing (VCU) + Zonal Controller (VIU)
5.6.16 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: Zonal Controller (VIU) Function Assignment
5.6.17 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: Zonal Controller (VIU) System Architecture
5.6.18 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: SOA Software Design Framework
5.6.19 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: Hardware Platform
5.6.20 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: SOA Software
5.6.21 SPA2 Zonal EEA System Design: VolvoCars.OS
5.7 Nissan
5.7.1 Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance (RNM) EEA Evolution: Technology Planning
5.7.2 Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance (RNM) EEA Evolution: HPC + Zonal + Sensor
5.7.3 Configurations of New-generation ProPilot
5.7.4 Self-developed ADAS Algorithms
5.8 Stellantis
5.8.1 Stellantis STLA Brain Quasi-central EEA: HPC and Zonal Controller
5.8.2 Stellantis STLA Brain Quasi-central EEA: Three Technology Platforms

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