Cybersecurity in the connected car: technology, industry, and future

Publisher Name :
Date: 01-Mar-2017
No. of pages: 63

Advanced connectivity, electronics and software are hallmarks of modern vehicles. A typical connected car contains up to 70 ECUs, and about 100 million lines of code. As vehicles expand in terms of technological complexity, they become an attractive target for cyber-criminals.

Security demonstrations such as the famous Miller and Valasek Jeep Cherokee example have provided enough evidence that connected cars should be viewed as a potential attack target. But how does an industry built around making and selling cars pivot to delivering secure software and services?

"Cybersecurity in the connected car: technology, industry, and future" examines the security implications of increasing connectivity and software complexity in connected & autonomous vehicles. It discusses the following elements of automotive cybersecurity:


  • Attack surfaces in connected and autonomous vehicles

  • Core vulnerabilities

  • Regulations and policies (US, EU, China, Japan)

  • Existing market solutions (OTA updates, IDPS, firewalls etc.)

  • Emerging solutions (ECU Consolidation, app sandboxing, autonomous security)

  • Security by design


Key questions addressed

The report addresses the following strategic questions, the answers to which will determine future of vehicle cybersecurity in the near foreseeable future:


  • What does the automotive cybersecurity landscape look like today?

  • What makes vehicles vulnerable?

  • What's in it for the hackers?

  • What are the worst-case scenarios?

  • Where should automakers invest to cyber-proof connected vehicles?

  • Can the CAN bus be secured?

  • What is the relationship between security and privacy?

  • Is legislation the answer to raise the bar of security standards in modern vehicles?

  • What standards are being developed around vehicle cybersecurity?

  • Can security by design ever be a commercial reality?

  • What are the available market solutions and who are the key players?

Cybersecurity in the connected car: technology, industry, and future

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 4

Chapter 2: The problem 6
2.1 Research experiments and demonstrations 6
2.2 Early industry and media responses 8
2.3 Consumer concerns 8
2.4 Hackers' motivation 10
2.4.1 Vehicle and property theft 11
2.4.2 Information and identity theft 12
2.4.3 Remotely taking control of a vehicle 13

Chapter 3: Connected car technology and its vulnerability 15
3.1 ECU proliferation 15
3.2 CAN and other bus systems 16
3.3 Code proliferation 19
3.4 Specific cyberattack surfaces 20
3.4.1 The on-board diagnostic (OBD-II) port 21
3.4.2 Infotainment head units 22
3.4.3 Bluetooth 22
3.4.4 USB/CD player/paired devices 23
3.4.5 In-car Wi-Fi hotspots 23
3.4.6 In-vehicle apps 24
3.4.7 Remote keyless entry systems 25
3.4.8 Tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) 25
3.4.9 Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) receivers 26
3.4.10 Electric vehicle charging port 27
3.4.11 Cyber-physical systems 27
3.5 Autonomous vehicles 28
3.6 Over-the-air (OTA) software updates 28
3.7 Supply chain security 29

Chapter 4: Industry responses 30
4.1 Justifying cybersecurity investments 30
4.2 Establishing cybersecurity departments 31
4.3 Collaboration with third-party security providers 31
4.3.1 Case study: Uber ‘bug bounty' program 33
4.4 Software updating 34

Chapter 5: Legislation and standards 36
5.1 Government initiatives 37
5.1.1 The US NHTSA's Vehicle Cybersecurity Research Program 37
5.1.2 The 2015 US SPY Car Act 39
5.1.3 The European Commission 39
5.1.4 Japan 40
5.1.5 China 41
5.2 Industry initiatives 41
5.2.1 SAE vehicle engineering and cybersecurity guidelines 42
5.2.2 Auto-ISAC 42

Chapter 6: Future directions 45
6.1 Security by design 46
6.2 Vehicle cybersecurity in layers 47
6.3 ECU consolidation 49
6.4 Increased specificity in requests for proposals from suppliers 50
6.5 Lessons from other industry sectors 51
6.6 Suggestions for the automotive industry 51

Appendix 1: High-quality automotive cybersecurity products and services 53
1 Harman 5+1 Cybersecurity Framework 53
2 Symantec Anomaly Detection for Automotive 54
3 NCC-SBD ‘V' model: Automotive Secure Development Lifecycle (ASDL) 54
4 Argus Multi-layered Security Protocol 55
5 Security Innovation Aerolink 55
6 I AM THE CAVALRY Five Star Cybersecurity Ratings 56
7 Trillium SecureCAR 56
8 Karamba Autonomous Security 57
9 Rambus CryptoManager 58
10 Arxan Application Security 58

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