World Hydrogen to 2018

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Date: 30-Jun-2014
No. of pages: 331
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World demand to rise 3.5% annually through 2018

Global consumption of merchant and captive hydrogen is forecast to increase 3.5 percent annually through 2018 to 290 billion cubic meters, driven by strong growth in petroleum hydrotreating and hydrocracking refining operations. These advances will be particularly robust in developing countries as per capita vehicle ownership rates rise, and as countries adopt and enforce more stringent emissions regulations to combat increasingly difficult air pollution problems. Merchant supply from industrial gas companies will expand rapidly as hydrogen consumption in upgraded petroleum refineries exceeds the refineries’ available captive resources.

Low-sulfur fuel regulations to continue driving demand

Over the past two decades, the adoption by many developed countries of motor vehicle emissions regulations has led to the need for low-sulfur and ultra-lowsulfur gasoline and diesel fuels, greatly increasing the consumption of hydrogen in refinery hydrotreating operations. This trend will continue to drive demand going forward as developing countries begin to combat persistently difficult air quality issues by implementing and/or enforcing more stringent fuel sulfur regulations. While tightening motor vehicle fuel sulfur regulations will be one factor driving refinery hydrogen demand in developing countries, growth will also be aided by rising per capita vehicle ownership rates and higher demand for fuels. Additionally, the shift in the world’s crude oil supply toward heavier crudes and rising demand for distillate fuels globally will support the increased use of hydrogen in refinery hydrocracking processes to break down heavier petroleum fractions into more valuable products.

Outside of refining, hydrogen is used in the production of many important chemicals; as well as in the metals, electronics, and thin-film solar industries; edible oil processing; and a variety of other applications. Although the chemical industry is the largest of these, more rapid growth is expected in several smaller markets. Additionally, the adoption of hydrogen energy technologies continues to proceed worldwide, and fuel cells will see greater mainstream adoption. Despite technical and other challenges, the emergence of a hydrogen market for fuel cell powered vehicles remains a possibility.

China to claim largest share of new demand growth

Although the United States will remain the world’s largest hydrogen consuming country, the greatest share of growth through 2018 is expected to occur in China. With air pollution in urban areas an increasingly pressing issue, China is expected to aggressively target motor vehicle emissions by enacting and enforcing tighter fuel sulfur regulations. This will drive hydrogen demand growth as the country’s refining industry increases its ability to produce low-sulfur fuels. Other emerging markets such as India and Russia will also seek to export ultralow- sulfur fuels, and will see among the fastest gains in hydrogen demand.

In most developed countries, demand for hydrogen will grow only modestly, if at all. The refining and chemical industries of Western Europe and Japan face stagnant domestic markets as well as strong competition from other areas. The US and Canada, however, will benefit from relatively plentiful raw material supply and the advanced state of their refining industries, allowing for healthier growth in hydrogen demand.

Company Profiles

Profiles key participants in the global industry including Air Products and Chemicals, L’Air Liquide, Linde & Praxair

Additional Information

This comprehensive study examines the world hydrogen industry by market and region. Historical data are provided for 2003, 2008, and 2013, with forecasts for the years 2018 and 2023. Within this study, the terms “demand” and “consumption” are used synonymously to refer to total use of merchant and captive supplied hydrogen unless otherwise indicated. Unless otherwise specified, data are presented in millions of US dollars and billions of cubic meters.

Throughout this study the concepts of value and price are distinct, though both are used to evaluate the global hydrogen market. A “value” is assigned to the captive or “on-purpose” consumption of hydrogen, a “price” to a merchant transaction. Merchant gas consumption is evaluated at the suppliers’ level — taking into account costs of production but excluding gross margins. Market share estimations apply only to the merchant segment of the market.

It should be noted that hydrogen consumed in the form of synthesis gas for the production of ammonia (for fertilizer) and methanol is excluded from the scope of this study. Hydrogen in this form is produced and immediately consumed in an integrated process, and therefore has no effect on the merchant market. Additionally, byproduct hydrogen is only included when separated for further use. Hydrogen flared, burned as fuel gas, or discharged into the atmosphere as waste is excluded.

World Hydrogen to 2018

Table Of Contents

Introduction IX

I. Executive Summary 1

II. Market Environment 4
General 4
World Economic Overview 5
Recent Historical Trends 6
World Economic Outlook 7
World Population Overview 10
World Manufacturing Overview 12
World Chemical Manufacturing Outlook 15
World Energy Outlook 17
World Petroleum Refining Outlook 21
World Fuel Cell Outlook 23
Environmental & Regulatory Issues 27
General 27
World Fuel Sulfur Regulations 29

III. Technology 33
General 33
Petroleum Refining 34
Conversion Processes 35
Treatment Processes 36
Hydrogen Production Methods 37
Steam Methane Reforming 38
Partial Oxidation 38
Water Electrolysis 39
Byproduct Hydrogen 40
Other Production Methods 41
Hydrogen Energy 43
General 43
Fuel Cells 45
Hydrogen Storage & Transportation 46

IV. Overview 49
General 49
World Hydrogen Demand by Region 51
World Hydrogen Demand by Market 55
Petroleum Refining 57
Petroleum Refining Hydrogen Demand by Process 59
Chemical Manufacturing 61
Other Markets for Hydrogen 63
Metal Processing 65
Electronics 66
Glass 67
Food Processing 67
All Other 68
Pricing Trends 70

V. North America 72
Macroeconomic Environment 72
Hydrogen Demand 75
Suppliers & Market Share 78
United States 80
Canada 89
Mexico 95

VI. Western Europe 103
Macroeconomic Environment 103
Hydrogen Demand 106
Suppliers & Market Share 110
Germany 112
Italy 118
Netherlands 124
Spain 131
France 137
United Kingdom 143
Other Western Europe 148

VII. Asia/Pacific 156
Macroeconomic Environment 156
Hydrogen Demand 159
Suppliers & Market Share 163
China 166
Japan 175
South Korea 184
India 190
Singapore 197
Taiwan 203
Other Asia/Pacific 208

VIII. Other Regions 214
Central & South America 214
Macroeconomic Environment 214
Hydrogen Demand 217
Suppliers & Market Share 219
Brazil 221
Other Central & South America 227
Eastern Europe 232
Macroeconomic Environment 232
Hydrogen Demand 236
Suppliers & Market Share 238
Russia 239
Poland 246
Other Eastern Europe 251
Africa/Mideast 256
Macroeconomic Environment 256
Hydrogen Demand 259
Suppliers & Market Share 262
Saudi Arabia 263
Other Africa/Mideast 268

IX. Industry Structure 274
General 274
Market Share 276
Acquisitions & Divestitures 280
Cooperative Agreements 281
Supply Agreements 284
Distribution 288
On-Site & Pipeline Distribution 289
Liquid & Compressed Gas Distribution 290
Company Profiles 292
Air Liquide Group 293
Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated 299
Airgas Incorporated 307
Hydro Edge, see Iwatani International INOX Air Products, see Air Products and Chemicals Iwatani International Corporation 309
Linde Group 311
Matheson Tri-Gas, see Taiyo Nippon Sanso Messer Group GmbH 318
Praxair Incorporated 320
Showa Denko KK 327
Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation 329

List Of Tables

Section I -- Executive Summary
1 Summary Table 3

Section II -- Market Environment
1 World Gross Domestic Product by Region 10
2 World Population by Region 12
3 World Manufacturing Value Added by Region 15
4 World Chemical Manufacturing Value Added by Region 17
5 World Energy Production by Type 20
6 World Refined Petroleum Products Production by Region 23
7 World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region 26

Section III -- Technology

Section IV -- Overview
1 World Hydrogen Demand 51
2 World Hydrogen Demand by Region 53
3 World Hydrogen Demand by Market 56
4 World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen 59
5 World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen by Application & Source 61
6 World Chemical Manufacturing Market for Hydrogen 63
7 Other Markets for Hydrogen by Region & Market 64
8 Hydrogen Pricing & Valuation 71

Section V -- North America
1 North America: Market Environment for Hydrogen 75
2 North America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 77
3 United States: Market Environment for Hydrogen 83
4 United States: Hydrogen Demand by Market 85
5 Canada: Market Environment for Hydrogen 91
6 Canada: Hydrogen Demand by Market 93
7 Mexico: Market Environment for Hydrogen 98
8 Mexico: Hydrogen Demand by Market 100

Section VI -- Western Europe
1 Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 106
2 Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 109
3 Germany: Market Environment for Hydrogen 115
4 Germany: Hydrogen Demand by Market 116
5 Italy: Market Environment for Hydrogen 121
6 Italy: Hydrogen Demand by Market 122
7 Netherlands: Market Environment for Hydrogen 127
8 Netherlands: Hydrogen Demand by Market 129
9 Spain: Market Environment for Hydrogen 133
10 Spain: Hydrogen Demand by Market 135
11 France: Market Environment for Hydrogen 139
12 France: Hydrogen Demand by Market 141
13 United Kingdom: Market Environment for Hydrogen 145
14 United Kingdom: Hydrogen Demand by Market 147
15 Other Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 151
16 Other Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 153

Section VII -- Asia/Pacific
1 Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen 159
2 Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market 162
3 China: Market Environment for Hydrogen 170
4 China: Hydrogen Demand by Market 172
5 Japan: Market Environment for Hydrogen 179
6 Japan: Hydrogen Demand by Market 181
7 South Korea: Market Environment for Hydrogen 186
8 South Korea: Hydrogen Demand by Market 188
9 India: Market Environment for Hydrogen 193
10 India: Hydrogen Demand by Market 195
11 Singapore: Market Environment for Hydrogen 200
12 Singapore: Hydrogen Demand by Market 201
13 Taiwan: Market Environment for Hydrogen 206
14 Taiwan: Hydrogen Demand by Market 207
15 Other Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen 211
16 Other Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market 212

Section VIII -- Other Regions
1 Central & South America: Market Environment for Hydrogen 217
2 Central & South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 219
3 Brazil: Market Environment for Hydrogen 224
4 Brazil: Hydrogen Demand by Market 225
5 Other Central & South America: Market Environment for Hydrogen 229
6 Other Central & South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 231
7 Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 235
8 Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 237
9 Russia: Market Environment for Hydrogen 242
10 Russia: Hydrogen Demand by Market 244
11 Poland: Market Environment for Hydrogen 248
12 Poland: Hydrogen Demand by Market 249
13 Other Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 253
14 Other Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 255
15 Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen 259
16 Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market 260
17 Saudi Arabia: Market Environment for Hydrogen 266
18 Saudi Arabia: Hydrogen Demand by Market 267
19 Other Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen 271
20 Other Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market 272

Section IX -- Industry Structure
1 Merchant Hydrogen Sales by Company, 2013 276
2 Selected Acquisitions & Divestitures 281
3 Selected Cooperative Agreements 283
4 Selected Supply Agreements 286

List Of Charts

Section X -- Executive Summary

Section XI -- Market Environment
1 World Energy Production by Type, 2003-2023 20
2 World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region, 2013 27

Section XII -- Technology

Section XIII -- Overview
1 World Hydrogen Demand by Region, 2013 54
2 Share of World Hydrogen Market Growth by Region, 2013-2018 54
3 World Hydrogen Demand by Market, 2013 57

Section XIV -- North America
1 North America: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 78
2 North America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 80

Section XV -- Western Europe
1 Western Europe Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 110
2 Western Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 112

Section XVI -- Asia/Pacific
1 Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 163
2 Asia/Pacific: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 166

Section XVII -- Other Regions
1 Central & South America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 221
2 Eastern Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 239
3 Africa/Mideast: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 263

Section XVIII -- Industry Structure
1 World Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 278

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