Global Visible Light Communication (Vlc)/Li-Fi Technology & Free Space Optics (Fso) Market (2013-2018): By Component (Led, Image Sensor), Application (Indoor Networking, Underwater Communication, Location Based Service, Intelligent Traffic Systems)

Publisher Name :
Date: 16-Jan-2013
No. of pages: 236

VLC technology, one of the advanced optical wireless communication technologies, in which light in the visible region (375nm-780nm) is used as a medium for data transmission is more secure and achieves high data rates as compared to conventional wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Wimax etc., which use radio waves for communication. Till late 1990s infrared spectrum is used for the communication. But in the early 2000s, researches started using visible light from LEDs as the medium for communication. Initially they were able to achieve network speed about 100Kbps. With continuous developments, VLC systems can now achieve about 800Mbps data rate for short range communications. Many companies and research institutes are conducting research to develop and commercialize Gigabit networks for long range communications.

FSO is based on the same principle as VLC but it uses light in the IR spectrum for communication. Invention RONJA device in 2001, which can achieve 10Mbps network speed over 0.87 miles boosted the research activities in the FSO technology. FSO was initially used for outdoor communication applications. But in the recent times, indoor applications like enterprise connectivity, hospitals are increasing.

Reliability and network coverage are the major issues to be considered by the companies while providing VLC services. Interferences from external light sources like sun light, normal bulbs; and opaque materials in the path of transmission will cause interruption in the communication. High installation cost of the VLC systems can be complemented by large-scale implementation of VLC. Adopting VLC technology will reduce further operating costs like electricity charges, maintenance charges etc.

Visible light communication technology is still in the introductory phase. Indoor networking and location based services are the only applications that are quite penetrated in the market. Products for other applications (intelligent traffic management system, in-flight entertainment, and underwater communication) are expected to hit the market by the end of 2013. VLC may be implemented as a complementary technology to the existing wireless networks. VLC is expected to penetrate M2M communication, smart cities, power over Ethernet (PoE), wireless sensor networks, ubiquitous networks, augmented reality etc. after five years.

Unlike VLC technology, FSO technology is commercialized in the market for quite some time. FSO technology is majorly used in military & aerospace applications due its secure and high speed data transmission rates. FSO is expected to be deployed in MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), service accelerating, last mile connectivity etc. applications in the near future.

This report categorizes the VLC/Li-Fi market based on components, applications and geography. Components include LEDs, infrared emitters, Opto-couplers, and image sensors. Major applications of VLC/Li-Fi covered in this report are Intelligent Traffic Management Systems (ITMS), Indoor Networking, In-flight Entertainment, Underwater Communication, and Location Based Service (LBS). The global market is fragmented in North America, Europe, APAC and ROW. The report also describes FSO market by applications: enterprise applications, mobile carrier backhaul, and military & aerospace; and geography.

Top players in the VLC/Li-Fi market include LVX System (U.S.), pureVLC Ltd (U.K.), Nakagawa Laboratories, Inc. (Japan), Outstanding Technology Corporation (Japan) and ByteLight (U.S.). Many research centers, institutes and consortiums are also undertaking R&D activities to develop and commercialize VLC technology. These include Visible Light Communication Consortium (VLCC), LiFi Consortium, University of Oxford (U.K.), Smart Lighting Engineering Research Centre, UC-Light Center (University of California, U.S.), Keio University (Japan), University of Edinburgh etc. APAC region is expected to be the market leader in the VLC/Li-Fi market owing to the recent technology developments and increased R&D activities.

Top players in the FSO market include fSONA Networks Corp. (Canada),Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. (U.S.), Northern Hi-Tec Ltd (U.K.), LightPointe Communications, Inc. (U.S.), Society for Optical Communications Systems Ltd. (Germany), and Wireless Excellence Limited (U.K.). Europe is the market leader in the FSO market at present but, North America is expected to lead the market by 2018. Increased enterprise and military & aerospace application in North America is driving the FSO market in this region.

Scope of the report
This research report categorizes the global VLC technology market; based on component, applications, and geography; it also covers the forecasted revenue and applications of FSO technology.

On the basis of component
Global VLC technology component market is segmented into LED, IR emitters, Opto-couplers and image sensors

On the basis of application areas
Global VLC technology applications market is segmented into ITS, indoor networking, in-flight entertainment and communication, underwater communication and location based services.

On the basis of geography
Geographical analysis covers North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and ROW.

Global Visible Light Communication (Vlc)/Li-Fi Technology & Free Space Optics (Fso) Market (2013-2018): By Component (Led, Image Sensor), Application (Indoor Networking, Underwater Communication, Location Based Service, Intelligent Traffic Systems)

Table Of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 KEY TAKE-AWAYS
1.2 REPORT DESCRIPTION
1.3 MARKETS COVERED
1.4 STAKEHOLDERS
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.5.1 MARKET SIZE
1.5.2 KEY DATA POINTS FROM SECONDARY SOURCES
1.5.3 KEY DATA POINTS FROM PRIMARY SOURCES
1.5.4 ASSUMPTIONS MADE FOR THIS REPORT
1.5.5 LIST OF COMPANIES COVERED DURING THE REPORT

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3 MARKET OVERVIEW
3.1 MARKET DEFINITION
3.2 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC) CONCEPT
3.2.1 ROADMAP
3.3 MARKET DYNAMICS
3.3.1 DRIVERS
3.3.1.1 LAST MILE CONNECTIVITY
3.3.1.2 POWER-EFFICIENT
3.3.1.3 INCREASING GOVERNMENT FUNDING
3.3.1.4 ULTRA-FAST DATA TRANSFER
3.3.2 RESTRAINTS
3.3.2.1 HIGH INSTALLATION COST
3.3.2.2 LACK OF TECHNOLOGY AWARENESS
3.3.2.3 COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES
3.3.3 OPPORTUNITIES
3.3.3.1 GROWING LED INDUSTRY
3.3.3.2 PENETRATION OF VLC IN ADVANCED APPLICATIONS
3.3.3.2.1 INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) AND
MACHINE-TO-MACHINE
COMMUNICATION (M2M)
3.3.3.2.2 SMART CITY
3.3.3.2.3 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN)
3.4 BURNING ISSUE
3.4.1 NETWORK COVERAGE AND DEPENDENCY
3.5 WINNING IMPERATIVE
3.5.1 LARGE SCALE IMPLEMENTATION OF VLC
3.6 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
3.7 CASH COW FOR VLC TECHNOLOGY
3.8 TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE
3.9 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL
3.9.1 DEGREE OF COMPETITION
3.9.2 BUYERS’ POWER
3.9.3 SUPPLIERS’ POWER
3.9.4 THREAT FROM SUBSTITUTES
3.9.5 THREAT FROM NEW ENTRANTS
3.10 RECENT ACTIVITIES IN VLC MARKET
3.10.1 LIFI CONSORTIUM
3.10.1.1 LI-FI OBJECTIVES
3.10.2 RONJA
3.10.2.1 RONJA DEVICE
3.10.3 D-LIGHT (DATA LIGHT) PROJECT
3.10.3.1 TECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND
3.10.3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
3.10.3.3 COMMERCIAL AND TECHNICAL FEATURES
3.10.3.4 APPLICATIONS
3.10.4 OMEGA EVENT

4 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 LI-FI TECHNOLOGY
4.2.1 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)
4.2.1.1 SOME OF THE VLC PROJECTS
4.2.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE
4.3 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) CONCEPT
4.3.1 HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
4.3.1.1 IRDA
4.3.1.2 RONJA
4.3.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE
4.3.3 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF FSO
4.4 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET FORECAST
4.4.1 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET FORECAST, BY APPLICATIONS
4.4.1.1 ENTERPRISE APPLICATION
4.4.1.1.1 ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY
4.4.1.1.2 HEALTH CARE
4.4.1.1.3 ENGINEERING AND DESIGN SERVICES
4.4.1.1.4 SECURITY
4.4.1.2 MOBILE CARRIER BACKHAUL
4.4.1.3 MILITARY APPLICATIONS
4.4.1.3.1 DETECTION
4.4.1.3.2 INTERCEPTION
4.4.1.4 OTHER APPLICATIONS
4.4.1.4.1 REDUNDANT LINK AND DISASTER RECOVERY
4.4.1.4.2 STORAGE AREA NETWORK
4.4.1.4.3 LAST MILE ACCESS
4.4.1.4.4 METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN)
4.4.2 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET FORECAST, BY GEOGRAPHY
4.4.2.1 NORTH AMERICA
4.4.2.2 EUROPE
4.4.2.3 APAC
4.4.2.4 ROW

5 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION MARKET, BY COMPONENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 LED
5.2.1 HISTORY
5.2.2 WORKING
5.2.3 LED LAMPS
5.2.3.1 WHITE LEDS
5.2.3.2 RGB LEDS
5.3 INFRARED EMITTERS
5.3.1 ALGAAS IR LED
5.3.2 GAAS LED
5.4 OPTO-COUPLERS
5.5 IMAGE SENSOR
5.5.1 DIFFERENT MODES IN PHOTO-DIODES
5.5.2 FEATURES OF IMAGE SENSOR VLC

6 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION MARKET, BY APPLICATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (ITS)
6.2.1 ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
6.2.2 ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEM
6.2.2.1 VEHICLE-TO-INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNICATIONS:
6.2.2.2 VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE (V2V) COMMUNICATIONS:
6.2.3 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (APTS)
6.3 INDOOR NETWORKING
6.3.1 COMPARISON WITH EXISTING TECHNOLOGY
6.4 IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT
6.4.1 GROWING IFE HARDWARE EXPENSES
6.4.2 RECENT ACTIVITY
6.5 UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION
6.5.1 FLOW OF INFORMATION
6.6 LOCATION BASED SERVICE
6.6.1 LOCATION BASED ADVERTISEMENT (LBA)
6.6.2 LOCATION BASED SHOPPING
6.6.3 LOCATION BASED SOCIAL NETWORKING
6.6.4 LOCATION BASED SEARCH
6.6.5 NAVIGATION

7 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 NORTH AMERICA
7.3 EUROPE
7.4 APAC
7.5 ROW

8 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
8.1 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS
8.2 KEY GROWTH STRATEGIES
8.2.1 MERGERS & ACUISITIONS
8.2.2 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH
8.2.3 COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIP

9 COMPANY PROFILES
9.1 AOPTIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
9.2 AVAGO TECHNOLOGIES
9.3 BYTELIGHT
9.4 CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.
9.5 FRAUNHOFER-GESELLSCHAFT
9.6 FSONA NETWORKS CORP.
9.7 LIFI CONSORTIUM
9.8 LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
9.9 LSA, INC.
9.10 LVX SYSTEM
9.11 MOSTCOM
9.12 NAKAGAWA LABORATORIES, INC.
9.13 NORTHERN HI-TEC LTD
9.14 OLEDCOMM - FRANCE LIFI
9.15 OMEGA PROJECT CONSORTIUM
9.16 OUTSTANDING TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
9.17 PANASONIC CORPORATION
9.18 PENGUIN AUTOMATED SYSTEMS INC.
9.19 PLAINTREE SYSTEMS INC
9.21 PUREVLC LTD
9.21 SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS LTD.
9.22 TAMURA CORPORATION
9.23 UBIQUITI NETWORKS, INC.
9.24 WIRELESS EXCELLENCE LIMITED

List Of Tables

 TABLE 1 VLC/LI-FI AND FSO MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
TABLE 2 GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 3 MARKET ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 4 COMPANIES COVERED IN THIS REPORT
TABLE 5 GLOBAL VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 (MILLION)
TABLE 6 GLOBAL FSO MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 (MILLION)
TABLE 7 VLC VS RF TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 8 FACTS RELATED TO ENERGY SAVING
TABLE 9 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES TO REPLACE THE INCANDESCENT LAMPS
TABLE 10 VLC VS WI-FI TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 11 SYSTEMS TO GO SMARTER
TABLE 12 AVERAGE TRAFFIC PER DEVICE GROWTH
TABLE 13 FACTS RELATED TO MOBILE DATA TRAFFIC
TABLE 14 RONJA MODELS
TABLE 15 VLC BENEFITS
TABLE 16 D-LIGHT PROJECT APPLICATIONS
TABLE 17 VLC PROJECTS
TABLE 18 IRDA STANDARDS
TABLE 19 FIBER OPTICS VS FSO
TABLE 20 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS
TABLE 21 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 22 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 23 FREE SPACE OPTICS ENTERPRISE APPLICATION MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 24 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 25 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN HEALTHCARE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 26 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN ENGINEERING AND DESIGN SERVICES, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 27 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN SECURITY SERVICES, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 28 FSO ADVANTAGES
TABLE 29 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN MOBILE CARRIER BACKHAUL, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 30 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET IN MILITARY APPLICATIONS, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 31 NORTH AMERICA FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 32 EUROPE FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 33 APAC FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 34 ROW FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 35 GLOBAL VLC MARKET, BY COMPONENTS, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 36 COMPARISON OF LEDS, INCANDESCENT AND FLUORESCENT LAMPS
TABLE 37 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL FOR DIFFERENT LEDS
TABLE 38 GLOBAL VLC LED COMPONENT MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 39 GLOBAL VLC IR EMITTER MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 40 DIFFERENT OPTO-COUPLERS
TABLE 41 GLOBAL VLC OPTO-COUPLER MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 42 MODES IN PHOTO-DIODES
TABLE 43 GLOBAL VLC IMAGE SENSOR MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLION)
TABLE 44 GLOBAL VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 45 GLOBAL VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM ITS APPLICATION, BY CATEGORY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 46 GLOBAL VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM ITS APPLICATION, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 47 ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 48 ADVANCED TRAVELLER INFORMATION MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 49 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 50 VLC VS WI-FI
TABLE 51 VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM INDOOR NETWORKING SYSTEM, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 52 COMPARISON WITH ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 53 VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM IN-FLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT AND COMMUNICATION, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 54 VLC MARKET IN UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 55 GLOBAL VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM LOCATION BASED SERVICES, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 56 VLC MARKET REVENUE FROM LOCATION BASED SERVICES, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 57 LOCATION BASED MOBILE ADVERTISEMENT MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 58 LOCATION BASED SHOPPING MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 59 LOCATION BASED SOCIAL NETWORKING MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 60 COMPARISON OF POSITION DETECTION WITH VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 61 LOCATION BASED SEARCH, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 62 NNAVIGATION MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 63 NORTH AMERICA: VLC MARKET, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 64 NORTH AMERICA: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY COMPONENTS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 65 EUROPE: VLC MARKET, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 66 EUROPE: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY COMPONENTS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 67 APAC: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 68 APAC: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY COMPONENTS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 69 ROW: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY APPLICATION, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 70 ROW: VLC MARKET REVENUE, BY COMPONENTS, 2012 - 2018 ($MILLION)
TABLE 71 TOP PLAYERS IN VLC MARKET
TABLE 72 TOP PLAYERS IN FSO MARKET
TABLE 73 MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS, 2010 – 2012
TABLE 74 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH/DEVELOPMENT, 2010 – 2012
TABLE 75 PARTNERSHIPS/AGREEMENTS/STRATEGIC ALLIANCE/ COLLABORATION, 2010 – 2012
TABLE 76 AVAGO TECHNOLOGIES : OVERALL REVENUE, 2010 - 2011 ($MILLION)
TABLE 77 CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.: MARKET REVENUE, 2011 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 78 CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.: MARKET REVENUE, BY PRODUCT SEGMENTS, 2011 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 79 CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.: MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 80 PANASONIC CORPORATION: MARKET REVENUE, 2010 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 81 PANASONIC CORPORATION: MARKET REVENUE BY BUSINESS SEGMENTS, 2011 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 82 PANASONIC CORPORATION: REVENUE BY GEOGRAPHY, 2010 - 2012 ($BILLION)
TABLE 83 PLAINTREE SYSTEMS INC.: MARKET REVENUE, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 84 PLAINTREE SYSTEMS INC.: MARKET REVENUE, BY BUSINESS SEGMENT, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 85 PLAINTREE SYSTEMS INC.: MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 86 TAMURA CORPORATION: OVERALL REVENUE, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 87 TAMURA CORPORATION: MARKET REVENUE, BY PRODUCT SEGMENTS, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 88 TAMURA CORPORATION: MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 89 UBIQUITI NETWORKS, INC.: MARKET REVENUE, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 90 UBIQUITI NETWORKS, INC.: MARKET REVENUE, BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)
TABLE 91 UBIQUITI NETWORKS, INC.: MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2012 ($MILLION)

List Of Figures

FIGURE 1 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION
FIGURE 2 MARKET SEGMENTATION
FIGURE 3 VLC CHARACTERISTICS
FIGURE 4 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION EVOLUTION
FIGURE 5 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF DRIVERS
FIGURE 6 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF LED
FIGURE 7 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF RESTRAINTS
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL LED REVENUE, 2010 - 2018 ($BILLION)
FIGURE 9 APPLICATIONS MAPPING OF VLC TECHNOLOGY
FIGURE 10 IOT ENVIRONMENT
FIGURE 11 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WSN
FIGURE 12 VLC PENETRATION IN FUTURE
FIGURE 13 INCREASING MOBILE DATA TRAFFIC
FIGURE 14 VLC APPLICATIONS LIFE CYCLE
FIGURE 15 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL
FIGURE 16 RONJA DEVICE OUTLOOK
FIGURE 17 FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF VLC AND LI-FI
FIGURE 18 WORKING OF VLC/LI-FI TECHNOLOGY
FIGURE 19 DATA FLOW PROCESS
FIGURE 20 FSO COMMUNICATION NETWORK
FIGURE 21 FSO MARKET SEGMENTATION
FIGURE 22 FSO ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY
FIGURE 23 FSO: NETWORK FOR HEALTHCARE
FIGURE 24 EVOLUTION OF LED
FIGURE 25 DIODE WORKING PRINCIPLE
FIGURE 26 INDOOR LED APPLICATION IN VLC
FIGURE 27 OPTO-COUPLER WORKING PRINCIPLE
FIGURE 28 ARCHITECTURE OF ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FIGURE 29 FLOW OF INFORMATION IN ADVANCED TRAVELLER INFORMATION SYSTEM
FIGURE 30 FLOW OF INFORMATION IN ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
FIGURE 31 GLOBAL IFE HARDWARE EXPENSES, 2012-2018 ($BILLION)
FIGURE 32 INFORMATION FLOW IN UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION
FIGURE 33 LBA ECOSYSTEM
FIGURE 34 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF VLC MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2013-2018
FIGURE 35 PANASONIC CORPORATION BUSINESS SEGMENTS

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