Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives

Publisher Name :
Date: 24-Mar-2013
No. of pages: 140

Thintri Inc. announces the release of Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives, 2013, a new update of its study on hard chrome in wear coatings and chrome replacement. This comprehensive examination of the subject discusses the various technologies, the industries in which they will, and won’t, be used, and forecasts to 2020.

The Chrome Plating Industry

  • Health and environmental issues
  • Effects of pollution control laws
  • The industry today
  • Economic factors
  • Drawbacks in hard chrome

Chrome plating Market Analysis

  • Aerospace
  • Oil & gas
  • Hydraulics & heavy machinery
  • General industry
  • Today’s economy
  • Geographic segmentation

Chrome Plating Alternatives

  • Trivalent chrome Plasma spray
  • High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)
  • Twin wire arc spray
  • Electro-spark deposition
  • Electroless nickel plating
  • Electroless nickel boron plating
  • Electroless nickel composite plating
  • Electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus coatings
  • Nickel-cobalt alloy coatings
  • Plated tin alloys
  • Explosive bonding
  • Laser cladding
  • Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
  • Intensified plasma-assisted processing

Market Demand

2013 to 2020 forecasts


  • Actuator hydraulics
  • Landing gear
  • Gas turbines
  • Other Components

General industrial

  • Automotive
  • Agriculture
  • Pulp & paper
  • Transportation & roads
  • Mining
  • Heavy equipment
  • Oil & gas
  • Stamping and molding

Background on Wear Coatings

Used as a fundamental coating in a wide range of industries—aerospace, heavy equipment, automotive and others — hard chrome plating has become increasingly difficult in recent years. Regulations designed to protect against the health and environmental hazards of hexavalent chrome have increased the cost of chrome plating and burdened facilities performing plating services with extensive regulation and paperwork. At the same time, hard chrome’s intrinsic performance limitations have proven troublesome in wear applications where requirements are consistently more demanding.

A number of alternatives to hard chrome are available. Chrome substitutes are dominated by thermal spray, in particular high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), often favored due to its high strength and wear resistance, relatively low cost, and fast turnaround time. However, other new processes are emerging and capturing chrome and HVOF markets as well. These include electroless nickel composite plating, which can deposit highly uniform diamond-composite coatings which are not restricted to line-of-sight geometries, as is HVOF. Other emerging techniques include explosive bonding, which can be used to fabricate stainless-steel or titanium coatings, and electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloys specifically targeted at inner diameters. Plasma vapor deposition (PVD) can make thin, high quality coatings for less cost, in many cases, than even decorative chrome.

At one time many predicted a near abandonment of chrome plating to one or more of these new technologies but this has not happened. Indeed, in some markets, the adoption of thermal spray as an alternative to hard chrome has slowed. One reason is that some sectors, like aerospace, are almost fully converted to alternatives already. Another is that the initial enthusiasm for thermal spray as a chrome alternative has waned as its own limitations become more widely known. For that reason, while HVOF markets are still growing, many users are investigating other alternatives, including newer thermal spray processes as well as plating and vapor deposition.

The market picture is mixed and wildly uncertain. For both chrome and its substitutes, coating demand in the oil and gas sector is booming, thanks to new oilfield development techniques like fracking and horizontal drilling, while forestry and pulp & paper continue a precipitous, long term decline.

And while industry downsizing and consolidation resulting from health and environmental legislation has led to the closure or offshore relocation of as many as half of the chrome plating shops in North America, the chrome plating market today is fairly stable. Most existing chrome plating shops, having accommodated new regulations, are now thriving and profitable. And many traditional customers have little or no interest in giving up on chrome.

Suppliers of alternative coating technologies are facing highly segmented markets where some chrome plating users resistant making large capital investments in new coating technologies, while others have eagerly embraced alternatives. Yet all face highly uncertain markets in the current economic climate, buffeted by wild swings in the cost of raw materials and lingering effects of the sluggish economy.

Understand the Markets

Success in wear coating markets will depend almost completely on a balance of cost and performance that will be highly application-specific. Many, if not most, chrome substitutes like thermal spray will require higher up-front costs, usually in the form of equipment purchases. However, longer lifetimes and reduced frequency of repairs can lead to significant long-term savings, not to mention the benefits of improved performance. Other alternatives offer a crossover benefit that depends on the scale of implementation or other factors. For example, PVD is more expensive than chrome for small lots but can be significantly less expensive in large-scale production. Most alternatives also offer a large advantage in reduced hazardous waste management costs compared to hexavalent chrome.

Thintri’s study Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives examines each of the leading alternative technologies in detail: its capabilities, limitations and most promising applications. The report also explores their potential in major market segments and forecasts markets to 2020.

Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives

Table Of Contents

Executive Summary 1
E.1 Introduction 1
E.2 Hard Chrome Wear Coatings 1
E.2.1 Health & Environmental Hazards, Legislation 1
E.2.2 The Hard Chrome Industry Today 2
E.2.3 Hard Chrome Markets 2
E.2.4 The Need for Chrome Alternatives in Wear Coatings 5
E.3 Primary Chrome Alternatives 6
E.3.1 Thermal Spray 6
E.3.1.1 HVOF 6
E.3.1.2 Plasma Spray 7
E.3.1.3 Twin Wire Arc Spray 7
E.3.2 Thermal Spray Consumables 8
E.3.3 Plated and PVD Alternatives to Chrome 8
E.3.3.1 Trivalent Chrome 8
E.3.3.2 Electroless Nickel and its Variations 9
E.3.3.3 Nanocrystallline Alternatives 11
E.3.3.4 Physical Vapor Deposition 11
E.3.5 Electrospark Deposition 11
E.3.6 Explosive Bonding 12
E.4 The Market Outlook for Alternatives 12

Chapter 1: Introduction 17

Chapter 2: The Hard Chrome Plating Industry 19
2.1 Chromium 19
2.2 Chrome Plating 20
2.3 Health and Environmental Effects 22
2.4 Effects of Pollution Control Legislation 23
2.4.1 OSHA's PELs 23
2.4.2 EPA Rules 25
2.4.3 Europe 27
2.5 The Industry Today 28

Chapter 3: Hard Chrome Markets and Market Drivers 32
3.1 Overview: Chrome's Dominance in Wear Coatings 32
3.2 Today's Hard Chrome Plating Markets 33
3.2.1 Aerospace Markets for Hard Chrome Plating 37
3.2.2 Aircraft Actuator Hydraulics 38
3.2.3 Landing Gear 39
3.2.4 Gas Turbines 39
3.2.5 Other Aircraft Components 41
3.2.6 Oil Field, Heavy Equipment, and General Industrial Markets for Hard Chrome 42
3.3 Drawbacks in Using Hard Chrome 43
3.4 Hard Chrome Market Conditions Today 45
3.5 Hard Chrome Market Forecasts 46
3.5.1 Introduction 46
3.5.2 Aerospace 46
3.5.3 Industry 47 Oil & Gas 47 Hydraulics & Heavy Machinery 48 Other General Industry 51

Chapter 4: Alternative Technologies to Hexavalent Chrome Plating 54
4.2 Thermal Spray 54
4.2.1 Thermal Spray Technologies Today 54
4.2.2 High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) 55 D-Gun 56 HVAF 56 HVOF vs. Chrome 57
4.2.3 Plasma Spray 59
4.2.4 Twin Wire Arc Spray 61
4.2.5 Powders 62
4.2.6 Stripping and Grinding Issues 63
4.2.7 Health & Environmental Issues in Thermal Spray 65
4.3 Plating Alternatives to Conventional Hard Chrome 65
4.3.1 Trivalent Chrome 65
4.3.2 Electroless Nickel Plating 69 Electroless Nickel Boron 71 Electroless Nickel Composite Plating 72
4.3.3 Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Coatings 75
4.3.4 Plated Tin Alloys 79
4.4 Electrospark Deposition 80
4.5 Explosive Bonding 82
4.6 Laser Cladding 84
4.7 Vacuum Techniques 84
4.7.1 PVD 84
4.7.2 Intensified Plasma-Assisted Processing 86
4.8 Line of Sight, Inner Diameter Issues 87

Chapter 5: Markets for Chrome Alternatives 89
5.1 Target Hard Chrome Markets, Penetration by Alternatives 89
5.2 Markets and Forecasts for Non-Chrome Plated and Vapor Deposition Solutions 91
5.3 Industrial Demand and Market Forecasts, Thermal Spray 92
5.3.1 Background: Industrial Thermal Spray in Today's Economy 93
5.3.2 Oil Field Applications 96
5.3.3 Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment 98
5.3.4 Other General Industry 102
5.4 Aerospace Demand and Forecasts 106
5.4.1 Commercial vs. Defense Demand 108
5.4.2 Opportunities in Overhaul and Repair vs. Manufacture 110
5.4.3 Landing Gear 112 5.4.4 Aircraft Hydraulics 116
5.4.5 Gas Turbines 117 Aircraft Gas Turbines 118 IGTs 119
5.4.6 Other Aerospace Applications 121
5.5 Thermal Spray Supplier Markets and Forecasts 123
5.5.1 Wear Coatings Markets 123
5.5.2 Markets for Services 125
5.5.3 Cost Issues 126
5.5.4 Geographic Segmentation 129
5.5.5 Powder Providers and Markets 132
5.5.6 Equipment Providers and Markets 135
5.5.7 HVOF vs. Plasma vs. Wire Arc 139

List Of Tables and Figures

Table 2-1 Domestic Sodium Dichromate & Chromic Acid Production, US 20
Table 2-2 Typical Process Parameters for Chrome Plating, Conventional Bath 21
Table 2-3 Symptoms of Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Among Chrome Plating and
Chromium Chemical Workers 22
Figure 2-1 Sources of Hexavalent Chromium Emissions, 2005 27
Figure 3-1 Worldwide Chrome Plating Demand, Hard vs. Decorative, 2013 33
Figure 3-2 Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2013  36
Figure 3-3 Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2020  36
Figure 3-4 Global Hard Chrome Market Breakdown, 2013 37
Figure 3-5 Aerospace Chrome Plating Market Segments, 2013 37
Figure 3-6 Aerospace Hard Chrome Markets, Commercial vs. Defense, 2013 38
Figure 3-7 Hard Chrome Demand Segmentation in Gas Turbines, Aerospace vs. IGT, 2013 40
Table 3-1 Industrial Hard Chrome Applications  42
Figure 3-8 Overall Hard Chrome Market Forecast 46
Figure 3-9 Aerospace Hard Chrome Markets Forecast 47
Figure 3-10 Hard Chrome Market Forecast, Oil & Gas 48
Figure 3-11 Overall Hydraulics & Heavy Equipment Hard Chrome Market Forecast 49
Figure 3-12 Hydraulics Markets: Mining & Earth Moving vs. Forestry & Logging 49
Figure 3-13 Market Forecasts: Agriculture, Waste & Recycling 50
Figure 3-14 Market Forecasts: Construction, Concrete & Asphalt 50
Figure 3-15 Market Forecasts: Defense & Government, Freight Transport 51
Figure 3-16 Hard Chrome Market Forecast: Overall General Industry 52
Figure 3-17 Forecasts: General Industry by Market Segment 52
Table 5-1 Realistic Hard Chrome Target Markets, Global 90
Figure 5-1 Overall Market Forecast, Plated and PVD Alternatives 92
Figure 5-2 Market Forecasts for Plated and PVD Alternatives by Segment 92
Figure 5-3 Thermal Spray Equipment vs. Consumables Market, 2013 96
Figure 5-4 Thermal Spray Powder Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector 98
Figure 5-5 Thermal Spray Services Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector 98
Figure 5-6 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Mining & Earth Moving, Forestry & Logging 100
Figure 5-7 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Agriculture, Waste & Recycling 100
Figure 5-8 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Construction, Concrete & Asphalt 101
Figure 5-9 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Defense& Government, Freight Transport 101
Figure 5-10 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment 102
Figure 5-11 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment 102
Figure 5-12 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, General Industry by Segment 105
Figure 5-13 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall General Industry 105
Figure 5-14 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall General Industry 106
Figure 5-15 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Powder, Wear Coatings, 2013 109
Figure 5-16 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Services, Wear Coatings, 2013 110
Figure 5-17 Aerospace Thermal Spray Powder Demand, Manufacture vs. Repair 111
Figure 5-18 Aerospace Overhaul & Repair, Thermal Spray Outsource vs. In-House, 2013  112
Figure 5-19 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Landing Gear 116
Figure 5-20 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Hydraulics 117
Figure 5-21 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Gas Turbines 119
Figure 5-22 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, IGTs 121
Figure 5-23 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Other Aerospace 122
Figure 5-24 Thermal Spray Services Forecast, Overall Aerospace 122
Figure 5-25 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coatings Consumables Market Forecast 124
Figure 5-26 Overall Market Forecast, Thermal Spray Services 125
Table 5-2 Time Study Results, HVOF vs. Chrome Plating on a Landing Gear Piston: 127
Figure 5-27 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Powders, Wear Coatings 130
Figure 5-28 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Equipment, Wear Coatings 130
Figure 5-29 Thermal Spray Powder Market Segments by Coating Type, 2013 133
Figure 5-30 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Powder Market Forecast 133
Figure 5-31 Market Share, Carbide Powder Producers, 2013 135
Figure 5-32 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Equipment Market Forecast 136
Figure 5-33 Market Share, Thermal Spray Equipment Producers, 2013 136
Figure 5-34 Market Share, Plasma Spray Equipment Producers, 2013 137
Figure 5-35 Market Share, HVOF Equipment Producers, 2013 137
Figure 5-36 Market Share, Wire Arc Equipment Producers, 2013 138
Figure 5-37 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Consumables 139
Figure 5-38 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Equipment 140

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