Battery & Fuel Cell Materials to 2017

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Date: 31-Jan-2014
No. of pages: 240
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US demand to reach $6 billion in 2017

US demand for battery and fuel cell materials is expected to rise more than four percent annually through 2017 to $6.0 billion. Growing motor vehicle production, as well as the motor vehicle industry’s increasing adoption of advanced energy storage technologies to meet government fuel efficiency mandates, will support growth in battery material demand, particularly for polymers and chemicals. Though rising from a much smaller base, fuel cell material demand will rise at a rapid double-digit pace due to the increasing adoption of fuel cells in electrical generation and industrial/motive power applications. However, even faster gains will be limited by the fuel cell industry’s continuing efforts to reduce costs, including through the adoption of less expensive and more efficient alternatives.

Polymer & chemical materials to see above-average growth

The motor vehicle industry’s ongoing efforts to meet increasingly stringent fuel efficiency requirements through the more widespread adoption of alternatives to the traditional flooded lead-acid battery will begin to be felt by the battery material industry over the forecast period. The rising adoption of rechargeable lithiumion batteries in hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles will help drive above average growth in polymer and chemical battery material demand as vehicle manufacturers ramp up domestic production of these batteries to supply their North American operations. In addition, the increasing adoption of startstop ignition technology will lead to the expanded usage of advanced glass mat (AGM) lead-acid batteries, boosting demand for more specialty materials such as glass fibers. More broadly, the ongoing rebound in US motor vehicle production will increase lead-acid battery shipments, which will be the primary driver of rising battery material demand overall.

Fuel cells to post doubledigit annual growth

Robust global demand for fuel cells as alternatives in electricity generation and industrial and motive power applications will support the rapid expansion of the US fuel cell industry, and drive doubledigit growth in fuel cell material demand through 2017. All material types will benefit, though industry efforts to find alternative electrode catalyst materials will limit faster advances in fuel cell metal demand. Even faster growth in fuel cell material demand over the long term will reflect the penetration of fuel cells in motor vehicle and portable device applications.

Performance additive, catalyst materials to pace gains

Among functional categories for battery and fuel cell materials, the most rapid gains will be for performance additive and catalyst materials, and for electrolytes. Growth will be driven by the ongoing need to improve battery durability and performance, as well as by surging demand for fuel cells, most of which use expensive platinum catalysts. Active materials and electrodes are the leading outlet for materials, but are expected to lag overall market increases in demand through 2017. Battery current collectors are expected to grow at the slowest pace of any function in the 2012-2017 period, as manufacturers continue to increase cost reduction efforts.

Company Profiles

Profiles 35 US industry players such as Ballard Power Systems, Celanese, OM Group and Umicore

Additional Information

This study analyzes the United States market for materials used in the production of batteries and fuel cells by application (primary batteries, secondary batteries, and fuel cells), by function (battery containers, electrodes, electrolytes, separators, etc.), and by material (carbon/graphite, chemicals, metals, polymers, and other). Materials are broadly defined as nondiscrete substances (in the form of gels, liquids, paste, or powder) used as catalysts, electrolytes, etc. and raw materials (such as rolled steel and zinc) that require further processing (e.g., cutting and forming) before they are used. The term fuel cell here is taken to refer to the fuel cell stack. Materials used in the manufacture of additional fuel cell system components such as external fuel tanks, fuel reformers, and piping are not covered.

Excluded from the scope of this study are discrete (individually distinct) fabricated devices (for example, battery cans) that are incorporated in the final product, although the raw materials used in their construction (such as nickel and steel) are covered here. Fuels and materials used in the manufacture of ancillary products (such as battery chargers and standalone power conditioning equipment) are also excluded.

Historical data (2002, 2007, and 2012) and forecasts for 2017 and 2022 are provided in current dollars (including inflation). Dollar figures presented include the value of materials provided by outside (contract) suppliers, as well as the estimated value of materials manufactured in house by battery and fuel cell companies (captive production). In addition, these figures include the value of both new and recycled materials (for instance, lead and polypropylene recovered from scrapped lead-acid batteries) used by battery and fuel cell manufacturers.

Battery & Fuel Cell Materials to 2017

Table Of Contents

Introduction   X

I. Executive Summary  1

II. Market Environment  4
General  4
Economic Environment  5
Durable Goods Manufacturing Outlook  8
Battery Industry Overview  10
Primary Batteries  12
Secondary Batteries  15
Fuel Cell Industry Overview  18
Technology Trends  21
Batteries  21
Basic Technology  22
Recent Developments  24
Fuel Cells  30
Basic Technology  31
Fuel Cell Chemistries  33
Battery & Fuel Cell Nanomaterials  33
Environmental & Regulatory Issues  35
Recycling  36
Health & Safety  38

III. Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Overview  41
General   41
Demand by Type  41
Demand by Function  44
Demand by Application  46

IV. Battery Materials  48
General   48
Demand by Type  49
Metals  51
Lead  53
Steel  55
Antimony  56
Zinc  58
Other Metals  59
Chemicals  61
Metallic Chemicals  62
Other Chemicals  67
Polymers  70
Polyolefins  71
Fluoropolymers  72
Other Polymers  73
Carbon/Graphite  73
Other Materials  75
Silica  76
Glass Fibers  77
Ceramics  78
All Other Materials  78
Demand by Function  79
Active Materials  81
Current Collectors  83
Containers  85
Electrolytes  87
Performance Additives  89
Separators  91
Other Functions  93
Terminals  94
Gaskets & Seals  94
Catalysts  95
All Other Functions  95
Demand by Application  96
Primary Batteries  98
Alkaline  100
Primary Lithium  103
Zinc-Air  106
Other Primary  108
Secondary Batteries  109
Lead-Acid  112
Metals  114
Chemicals  115
Polymers  116
Other Materials  117
Rechargeable Lithium  118
Nickel-Metal Hydride  121
Nickel-Cadmium  124
Other Secondary  125

V. Fuel Cell Materials  128
General  128
Demand by Type  129
Metals  131
Platinum  132
Other Metals  133
Ceramics  134
Polymers  135
Fluoropolymers  136
Other Polymers  137
Carbon/Graphite  138
Chemicals & Other  139
Demand by Function  140
Catalysts  142
Electrodes  144
Electrolytes  146
Plates  148
Other Functions  150
Demand by Application  151
Solid-Oxide  154
Proton-Exchange Membrane  155
Molten Carbonate  157
Phosphoric Acid  158
Direct Methanol  159
Other Applications  160

VI. Industry Structure  162
General  162
Market Share  165
Manufacturing  169
Battery Materials  170
Fuel Cell Materials  171
Acquisitions & Divestitures  173
Competitive Strategies  176
Marketing & Distribution  180
Company Profiles  181
Ames Goldsmith Corporation  182
AMETEK Incorporated  183
Asbury Carbons Incorporated  184
AvCarb LLC  185
Ballard Power Systems Incorporated   186
BASF SE  187
Buick Resource Recycling, see Doe Run Resources Bulk Molding Compounds, see Citadel Plastics  Holdings Cabot Corporation  191
Celanese Corporation  193
Citadel Plastics Holdings Incorporated  194
CS Energy Materials, see HC Starck Delta EMD, see Valmont Industries Doe Run Resources Corporation   196
DuPont (EI) de Nemours  198
East Penn Manufacturing Company Incorporated  201
Eco-Bat Technologies Limited  202
Erachem Comilog, see Eramet Eramet SA  203
Exide Technologies  206
Fabricated Products, see Doe Run Resources FMC Corporation  207
Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Incorporated  209
Glencore Xstrata plc  211
Gopher Resource LLC  212
GrafTech International Limited   213
Hammond Group Incorporated  215
HC Starck GmbH  216
Hollingsworth & Vose Company  218
Horsehead Holding Corporation   220
International Metals Reclamation, see Horsehead Holding KW Plastics, see Sanders Lead Mitsui Zinc Powders, see Horsehead Holding Novolyte Technologies, see BASF Nyrstar, see Umicore/NV OM Group Incorporated  222
Ovonic Battery, see BASF Rockwood Holdings Incorporated   223
RSR, see Eco-Bat Technologies Sanders Lead Company Incorporated   224
Société Le Nickel, see Eramet Southeast Missouri Mining and Milling, see Doe Run Resources Styrolution Group, see BASF Superior Graphite Company  225
Tata Steel Limited  227
3M Company  228
Ticona, see Celanese Tosoh Corporation  230
Tronox Limited  231
Umicore SA/NV  233
Vale SA  236
Valmont Industries Incorporated   238
Additional Companies Mentioned in the Study  239

List Of Tables

Section I -- Executive Summary
Summary Table   3

Section II -- Market Environment
1 Macroeconomic Indicators  8
2 Durable Goods Shipments  10
3 Battery Supply & Demand  12
4 Primary Battery Supply & Demand  15
5 Secondary Battery Supply & Demand  18
6 Fuel Cell Shipments by Type  20

Section III -- Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Overview
1 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type   43
2 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function  45
3 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application  47

Section IV -- Battery Materials
1 Battery Materials Demand by Type  50
2 Metals Demand in Batteries  52
3 Lead Demand in Batteries  55
4 Steel Demand in Batteries  56
5 Antimony Demand in Batteries  57
6 Zinc Demand in Batteries  58
7 Other Metals Demand in Batteries  59
8 Chemicals Demand in Batteries  62
9 Metallic Chemicals Demand in Batteries  63
10 Other Chemicals Demand in Batteries  68
11 Polymers Demand in Batteries  71
12 Carbon/Graphite Demand in Batteries  75
13 Other Materials Demand in Batteries  76
14 Battery Materials Demand by Function  80
15 Battery Active Materials Demand  83
16 Battery Current Collector Materials Demand   85
17 Battery Container Materials Demand  87
18 Battery Electrolyte Materials Demand  89
19 Battery Performance Additive Materials Demand   90
20 Battery Separator Materials Demand  92
21 Battery Materials Demand for Other Functions   93
22 Battery Materials Demand by Application  97
23 Primary Battery Materials Demand  99
24 Alkaline Battery Materials Demand   102
25 Primary Lithium Battery Materials Demand  105
26 Zinc-Air Battery Materials Demand   107
27 Other Primary Battery Materials Demand   109
28 Secondary Battery Materials Demand   111
29 Lead-Acid Battery Materials Demand   114
30 Metals Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries   115
31 Chemicals Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries   116
32 Polymers Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries   117
33 Other Materials Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries  118
34 Rechargeable Lithium Battery Materials Demand  121
35 Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Materials Demand  123
36 Nickel-Cadmium Battery Materials Demand   125
37 Other Secondary Battery Materials Demand  127

Section V -- Fuel Cell Materials
1 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type   130
2 Metals Demand in Fuel Cells  132
3 Ceramics Demand in Fuel Cells  135
4 Polymers Demand in Fuel Cells  136
5 Carbon/Graphite Demand in Fuel Cells   139
6 Chemicals & Other Materials Demand in Fuel Cells  140
7 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function   141
8 Fuel Cell Catalyst Materials Demand   144
9 Fuel Cell Electrode Materials Demand   146
10 Fuel Cell Electrolyte Materials Demand   148
11 Fuel Cell Plate Materials Demand   150
12 Fuel Cell Materials Demand for Other Functions  151
13 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application  153

Section VI -- Industry Structure
1 US Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Sales by Company, 2012  164
2 Selected Acquisitions & Divestitures   175
3 Selected Cooperative Agreements  179

List Of Charts

Section II -- Market Environment
1 Basic Battery Construction  23
2 Basic Fuel Cell Construction  32

Section III -- Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Overview
1 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type, 2012  43
2 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function, 2012  45
3 Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application, 2002-2022  47

Section IV -- Battery MATERIALS
1 Battery Materials Demand by Type, 2012  51
2 Battery Materials Demand by Function, 2012   81
3 Battery Materials Demand by Application, 2012   97

Section V -- Fuel Cell Materials
1 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type, 2012  131
2 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function, 2012  142
3 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application, 2012  153

Section VI -- Industry Structure
1 US Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Market Share, 2012  166

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