Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Market Research: Global Status & Forecast by Geography, Type & Application (2015-2025)

Publisher Name :
Date: 13-Jul-2019
No. of pages: 55

According to 99Strategy, the Global Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Market is estimated to reach xxx million USD in 2019 and projected to grow at the CAGR of xx% during the 2020-2025. The report analyses the global Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) market, the market size and growth, as well as the major market participants.

The analysis includes market size, upstream situation, market segmentation, market segmentation, price & cost and industry environment. In addition, the report outlines the factors driving industry growth and the description of market channels.The report begins from overview of industrial chain structure, and describes the upstream. Besides, the report analyses market size and forecast in different geographies, type and end-use segment, in addition, the report introduces market competition overview among the major companies and companies profiles, besides, market price and channel features are covered in the report.

Key Regions

- Asia Pacific

- North America

- Europe

- South America

- Middle East & Africa

Key Companies

- Post Holdings

- GNC

- Nature's Way

- Nature's Bounty

- NOW

- Swanson

- MRM

- Myprotein

- Primaforce

- Vitamin World

- Teinlab

- NutraKey

- Nutraceutical

Key Product Type

- Capsule

- Tablets

- Powder

Market by Application

- Healthcare

- Pharmaceutical

- Others

Main Aspects covered in the Report

- Overview of the Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) market including production, consumption, status & forecast and market growth

- 2015-2018 historical data and 2019-2025 market forecast

- Geographical analysis including major countries

- Overview the product type market including development

- Overview the end-user market including development

Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Market Research: Global Status & Forecast by Geography, Type & Application (2015-2025)

Table of Contents

1 Industrial Chain Overview
1.1 Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Industry
1.1.1 Overview
1.1.2 Characteristics of Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC)
1.2 Upstream
1.2.1 Major Materials
1.2.2 Manufacturing Overview
1.3 Product List By Type
1.3.1 Capsule
1.3.2 Tablets
1.3.3 Powder
1.4 End-Use List
1.4.1 Demand in Healthcare
1.4.2 Demand in Pharmaceutical
1.4.3 Demand in Others
1.5 Global Market Overview
1.5.1 Global Market Size and Forecast, 2015-2025
1.5.2 Global Market Size and Forecast by Geography with CAGR, 2015-2025
1.5.3 Global Market Size and Forecast by Product Type with CAGR, 2015-2025
1.5.4 Global Market Size and Forecast by End-Use with CAGR, 2015-2025

2 Global Production & Consumption by Geography
2.1 Global Production & Consumption
2.1.1 Global Production
2.1.2 Global Consumption
2.2 Geographic Production & Consumption
2.2.1 Production
2.2.1.1 Asia-Pacific
2.2.1.2 North America
2.2.1.3 South America
2.2.1.4 Europe
2.2.1.5 Middle East & Africa
2.2.2 Consumption
2.2.2.1 Asia-Pacific
2.2.2.2 North America
2.2.2.3 South America
2.2.2.4 Europe
2.2.2.5 Middle East & Africa

3 Major Manufacturers Introduction
3.1 Manufacturers Overview
3.2 Manufacturers List
3.2.1 Post Holdings Overview
3.2.1.1 Product Specifications
3.2.1.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.1.3 Recent Developments
3.2.1.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.2 GNC Overview
3.2.2.1 Product Specifications
3.2.2.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.2.3 Recent Developments
3.2.2.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.3 Nature's Way Overview
3.2.3.1 Product Specifications
3.2.3.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.3.3 Recent Developments
3.2.3.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.4 Nature's Bounty Overview
3.2.4.1 Product Specifications
3.2.4.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.4.3 Recent Developments
3.2.4.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.5 NOW Overview
3.2.5.1 Product Specifications
3.2.5.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.5.3 Recent Developments
3.2.5.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.6 Swanson Overview
3.2.6.1 Product Specifications
3.2.6.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.6.3 Recent Developments
3.2.6.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.7 MRM Overview
3.2.7.1 Product Specifications
3.2.7.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.7.3 Recent Developments
3.2.7.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.8 Myprotein Overview
3.2.8.1 Product Specifications
3.2.8.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.8.3 Recent Developments
3.2.8.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.9 Primaforce Overview
3.2.9.1 Product Specifications
3.2.9.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.9.3 Recent Developments
3.2.9.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.10 Vitamin World Overview
3.2.10.1 Product Specifications
3.2.10.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.10.3 Recent Developments
3.2.10.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.11 Teinlab Overview
3.2.11.1 Product Specifications
3.2.11.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.11.3 Recent Developments
3.2.11.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.12 NutraKey Overview
3.2.12.1 Product Specifications
3.2.12.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.12.3 Recent Developments
3.2.12.4 Future Strategic Planning
3.2.13 Nutraceutical Overview
3.2.13.1 Product Specifications
3.2.13.2 Business Data (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Margin)
3.2.13.3 Recent Developments
3.2.13.4 Future Strategic Planning

4 Market Competition Pattern
4.1 Market Size and Sketch
4.2 Company Market Share
4.2.1 Global Production by Major Manufacturers
4.2.2 Market Concentration Analysis
4.3 Market News and Trend
4.3.1 Merger & Acquisition
4.3.2 New Product Launch

5 Product Type Segment
5.1 Global Overview by Product Type Segment
5.2 Segment Subdivision by Product Type
5.2.1 Market in Capsule
5.2.1.1 Market Size
5.2.1.2 Situation & Development
5.2.2 Market in Tablets
5.2.2.1 Market Size
5.2.2.2 Situation & Development
5.2.3 Market in Powder
5.2.3.1 Market Size
5.2.3.2 Situation & Development
6 End-Use Segment
6.1 Global Overview by End-Use Segment
6.2 Segment Subdivision
6.2.1 Market in Healthcare
6.2.1.1 Market Size
6.2.1.2 Situation & Development
6.2.2 Market in Pharmaceutical
6.2.2.1 Market Size
6.2.2.2 Situation & Development
6.2.3 Market in Others
6.2.3.1 Market Size
6.2.3.2 Situation & Development

7 Market Forecast & Trend
7.1 Regional Forecast
7.2 Consumption Forecast
7.2.1 Product Type Forecast
7.2.2 End-Use Forecast
7.3 Investment Trend
7.4 Consumption Trend

8 Price & Channel
8.1 Price and Cost
8.1.1 Price
8.1.2 Cost
8.2 Channel Segment

9 Market Drivers & Investment Environment
9.1 Market Drivers
9.2 Investment Environment

10 Research Conclusion

List of Tables

Table Global Market Size and Forecast by Geography with Growth Rate, 2015-2025
Table Global Market Size and Forecast by Type with Growth Rate, 2015-2025
Table Global Market Size and Forecast by End-Use with Growth Rate, 2015-2025
Table Global Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Geography, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Geography, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Global Market Volume and Growth Rate by Geography, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Market Amount and Growth Rate by Geography, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Asia-Pacific Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Asia-Pacific Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table North America Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table North America Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table South America Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table South America Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Europe Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Europe Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Middle East & Africa Production Volume Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Middle East & Africa Production Amount Status and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Asia-Pacific Market Volume and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Asia-Pacific Market Amount and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table North America Market Volume and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table North America Market Amount and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Europe Market Volume and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table South America Market Amount and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Europe Market Volume and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Europe Market Amount and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Middle East & Africa Market Volume and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Middle East & Africa Market Amount and Growth Rate by Region, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Major Manufacturers Headquarters and Contact Information
Table Major Manufacturers Capacity List in 2018
Table Post Holdings Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Post Holdings (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table GNC Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of GNC (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Nature's Way Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Nature's Way (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Nature's Bounty Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Nature's Bounty (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table NOW Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of NOW (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Swanson Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Swanson (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table MRM Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of MRM (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Myprotein Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Myprotein (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Primaforce Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Primaforce (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Vitamin World Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Vitamin World (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Teinlab Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Teinlab (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table NutraKey Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of NutraKey (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Nutraceutical Overview List
Table Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Business Operation of Nutraceutical (Production Volume (Volume), Production Amount (Million USD), Price, Cost, Gross Margin)
Table Global Production Volume List by Manufacturers, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Production Volume Share List by Manufacturers, 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Production Amount List by Manufacturers, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Global Production Amount Share List by Manufacturers, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Global Market Status and Growth Rate by Product Type Segment, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Global Market Status and Growth Rate by Product Type Segment 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Market Status and Growth Rate by End-Use Segment, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Table Global Market Status and Growth Rate by End-Use Segment 2015-2018, in Volume
Table Global Market Forecast by Region Segment 2019-2025, in Million USD
Table Global Market Forecast by Region Segment 2019-2025, in Volume
Table Global Market Amount by Product Type Segment 2019-2025, in Million USD
Table Global Market Volume by Product Type Segment 2019-2025, in Volume
Table Global Market Amount by End-Use Segment 2019-2025, in Million USD
Table Global Market Volume by End-Use Segment 2019-2025, in Volume

List of Figures

Figure Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) Picture List
Figure Global Market Size and Forecast with Growth Rate, 2015-2025
Figure Global Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Global Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Asia-Pacific Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Asia-Pacific Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure North America Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure North America Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure South America Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure South America Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Europe Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Europe Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Middle East & Africa Production Volume Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Middle East & Africa Production Amount Status and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Asia-Pacific Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Asia-Pacific Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure North America Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure North America Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Europe Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure South America Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Europe Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Europe Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Middle East & Africa Market Volume and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Middle East & Africa Market Amount and Growth Rate, 2015-2018, in Million USD
Figure Global Production Volume Share by Manufacturers in 2019, in Volume
Figure Global Production Amount Share by Manufacturers in 2019, in Million USD
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Capsule, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Capsule, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Tablets, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Tablets, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Powder, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Powder, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Healthcare, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Healthcare, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Pharmaceutical, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Pharmaceutical, 2015-2018, in Volume
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Others, 2015-2018, in USD Million
Figure Global Market Amount and Growth Rate in Others, 2015-2018, in Volume
  • Global (United States, European Union and China) Calcium Market Research Report 2019-2025
    Published: 16-Aug-2019        Price: US 3280 Onwards        Pages: 117
    Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. Of the key end use industries, the construction industry has emerged as one of the most promising sectors for the market. In 2019, the market size of Calcium is xx million US$ and it will reach xx million ......
  • Global (United States, European Union and China) Natural Vitamin E Market Research Report 2019-2025
    Published: 15-Aug-2019        Price: US 3280 Onwards        Pages: 118
    On a supplement label, natural vitamin E is listed as d-alpha tocopherol, d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, or d-alpha tocopheryl succinate. Natural vitamin E assimilates far better than synthetic versions. Natural vitamin E contains the molecule humans assimilate most effectively. With the wide application of Natural Source Vitamin E in dietary supplement, food & beverage and cosmetics, the growth rate of Natural Source Vitamin E may be higher in the next several years. In 2019, the mar......
  • Global and China DHA from Algae Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025
    Published: 15-Aug-2019        Price: US 2000 Onwards        Pages: 64
    Summary DHA, Docosahexaenoic acid, with molecular formula C22H32O2, is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. DHA can help lowering lipid, lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammatory, enhancing the activity of brain cells, improving eyesight and other effects. DHA is a kind of both Omega-3 essential fatty acids, which is rich in fish oil and microalgae. Market Segment as follows: By Type - ......
  • Global and China Glucosamine Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025
    Published: 14-Aug-2019        Price: US 2000 Onwards        Pages: 96
    Summary Glucosamine is primarily derived from shellfish, which is an amino sugar that is essential for the biosynthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine has been showed to help rebuild and repair human cartilage, and is used as a base ingredient in joint health dietary supplements. It is often used in conjunction with chondroitin, which gives cartilage elasticity. Market Segment as follows: By Type - Glucosamine Hydrochloride - G......
  • Global and China Ginseng Extract Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025
    Published: 14-Aug-2019        Price: US 2000 Onwards        Pages: 66
    Summary Ginseng is a plant characterized by a fleshy root and a single stalk with green oval-shaped leaves. It is a perennial plant that can live more than a century. Ginseng is typically derived from the root of this plant. As an herbal supplement, the extract has long been prized for its reputation of having anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties. It is also used in the homeopathic treatment of conditions, including depression, stress, low libido, and Attenti......
  • Global and China Folate Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025
    Published: 14-Aug-2019        Price: US 2000 Onwards        Pages: 74
    Summary Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. We mainly study 3rd generation and the 4th generation products in this report. Market Segment as follows: By Type - 5-MTHF Calcium Salt - 5-MTHF Glucosamine Salt By Application - Tablets - Empty Capsules By Company - Gnosis SPA - DSM - Merck......
  • Global and China Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025
    Published: 13-Aug-2019        Price: US 2000 Onwards        Pages: 68
    Summary Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycan's that are found in and unique to human breast milk, despite not actually being digestible by human infants. HMOs function as a prebiotic helping to establish commensal bacteria. HMOs also function as anti-adhesives that help prevent the attachment of microbial pathogens to mucosal surfaces.Human milk oligosaccharides are manufactured through numerous processes which involve the use......
  • Global Egg Yolk Lecithin Industry Market Research Report
    Published: 13-Aug-2019        Price: US 2960 Onwards        Pages: 139
    The Egg Yolk Lecithin market revenue was xx.xx Million USD in 2014, grew to xx.xx Million USD in 2018, and will reach xx.xx Million USD in 2024, with a CAGR of x.x% during 2019-2024. Based on the Egg Yolk Lecithin industrial chain, this report mainly elaborates the definition, types, applications and major players of Egg Yolk Lecithin market in details. Deep analysis about market status (2014-2019), enterprise competition pattern, advantages and disadvantages of enterprise products, industry dev......
  • Global L-Glutamate Industry Market Research Report
    Published: 13-Aug-2019        Price: US 2960 Onwards        Pages: 128
    The L-Glutamate market revenue was xx.xx Million USD in 2014, grew to xx.xx Million USD in 2018, and will reach xx.xx Million USD in 2024, with a CAGR of x.x% during 2019-2024. Based on the L-Glutamate industrial chain, this report mainly elaborates the definition, types, applications and major players of L-Glutamate market in details. Deep analysis about market status (2014-2019), enterprise competition pattern, advantages and disadvantages of enterprise products, industry development trends (2......
  • SERVICES
    Value for Money
    We believe in "optimum utilization of available budget and resources". While servicing our clients' (your) market research requirements, we keep the same approach in focus to help you get the best value for your $$s.
    Ever Growing Inventory
    Ranging from the smallest feasible / required data (datasheets, data facts, SWOT analysis, company profiles, etc) to full research reports that help you make decisions, our inventory is updated almost on a daily basis with the latest industry reports from domain experts that track more than 5000 niche sectors.
    One Stop Solution
    Need a custom research report on medical devices market? Require all available business intelligence on 3D printing industry? Exploring F&B sector of a particular country/region? RnRMarketResearch.com is your one-stop-solution to all market intelligence needs. We not only offer custom research and consulting services, we also "bundle" reports to meet your needs and help you fetch the data analysis you require for your business.
    Dedicated Client Engagement
    Not limited to only "finding" relevant reports for you, our client engagement team dedicates its efforts to understand your "business need" and accordingly maps available research data to help you move forward. Call "your" client engagement executive any time of your day and get your questions answered in order to make the correct business decision.
    Saving Time and Efforts
    Simply share your research requirement details with us and let us do all the hard work to find required intelligence for you. When you add up our "one stop solution" and "dedicated client engagement" services mentioned above, you obviously know the time and effort saving you do by working with us.
    Payment Flexibility
    Working with Fortune 500 organizations, we understand the importance of being flexible for payments. Share your payment terms with us and we will surely match up to them to ensure you get access to required business intelligence data without having to wait for the payment to be done.
    Post-Purchase Research Support
    Have questions after reading a report / datasheet bought through us? Not sure about the methodology used for data available in the research? Talk to us / Share your questions with us and if required, we will connect you with the analyst(s)/author(s) of the report(s) and ensure you get satisfactory answers for the same. Need more data / analysis / report(s) on the topic of your research/project? The RnRMarketResearch.com team is here for you 24X7 to support you with your post-purchase requirements. Subscription Offers & Packages (Get in touch with us for more details - sales@rnrmarketresearch.com / +1 888 391 5441 )
    • Ad Hoc
    • Pay - as - you - go / Bucket Subscriptions
    • Fixed Cost for #of reports
    • Customize / Personalize as per your needs